Journal   of   Man and Environment

( Vol.1 , No.5,6 , Autumn 1999 and winter 2000 )

  • Environmental Aspects in Sustable Development Design of Sugar Cane and Related Industries in Khoozestan Province

  • ( 1A. Lahijanzadeh, M.S.,   2N. Djaafarzadeh, Ph.D.,   1H. Kaabi, M.S.,   1S. Rostami, M.S.,   1K. Morovati, M.S.,   1A. Mahdaviani, M.S. )
    1- Khoozestan office Environmental Protection, Ahvaz     2- Dept. of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences

    Keywords :   Karoon river, Cane sugar , Pollution
    Abstract :
      In this research program, the environmental impacts of the cane sugar farmlands and the related industries planned for construction near Karoon and Dez River areas were studied.
      After collecting the library data, completing the questionnaire sheets and tables, and gathering some important information about the effluent discharges into the rivers, 13 sampling stations on the Karoon river have been selected and planned for a comprehensive sampling and analyzing program in order to determine the water quality indices parameters.
      By using the above-mentioned data, the probable pollution loads and some environmental consequences (related to the cane sugar processes) were estimated. Finally, general conclusions and related recommendations were presented.

  • Sr-90 in Fresh and Powdered Milk Consumed by Children in Tehran and North of Iran

  • ( A. Mesbah, Ph.D.,   Sh. Paykarjoo, MSPH )
    Dept. of Environmental Health Engineering , Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Keywords :   Radionuclides , Sr-90 , Milk , Iran
    Abstract :
      Strontium-90, one of the radionuclides produced during the fission of uranium and plutonium in the nuclear explosions and reactors, can readily replace calcium in the milk. It can threat the public health, both through its physical long half-life (over 28 years) and its existence in the milk that is a perfect nutrient for children.
      In this study, 50 samples of fresh milk from Tehran, Mazandaran, eastern and western Azarbaijan and another 25 samples of powdered milk imported from Netherlands, Denmark and Japan, were collected.
      After extraction of strontium by the method of Tributhyl Phosphate (TBP) and samples preparation, Sr-90 reached the radioactive equilibrium with Yr-90 ( which was measured by the low-level beta detector). The mean concentration of Sr-90 in the samples of fresh milk from Tehran, east and west Azarbaijan and Mazandaran were 5.43, 1.76, 1.70 and 2.90 Bq/Kg , respectively.
      These values for powdered milk imported samples from Japan, Denmark and Netherlands were 6.93, 11.8 and 19.64 Bq/Kg, respectively. These results showed that the mean concentration of Sr-90 in the imported powdered milk was significantly higher than normal and indicated the necessity of a precise control on imported nutrition products for children.

  • Determination of Heavy Metals in Vegetables Cultivated in Hamedan and Irrigated with Polluted Water

  • ( M. Samarghandy, MSPH,   M. Karimpoor, MSPH,   Gh. Sadri, Ph.D. )
    Dept. of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences

    Keywords :   Heavy Metals , Vegetables , and Water Pollution
    Abstract :
      A study was carried out to measure the variations of Hamadanís vegetablesí heavy metals, in 1996. In this research concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr in vegetables, which were irrigated with polluted water, were measured in August, September and October.
      90 samples of vegetables were chosen randomly (30 samples per month). Atomic Absorption Spectrometry apparatus was used to measure heavy metals concentrations. Data were then analyzed by Minitab.
      Results showed a significant difference in Pb Concentrations in August and September (P-value = 0.03). There was also a significant difference for the amount of Cr in vegetables in different months (P-value = 0.039). The concentrations of Ni in vegetables were not significantly different in 3 months. Concentration of Cd was zero ( Nill ) in the samples for all months.
      Results indicated that Pb concentration in vegetables was more than the permissible limitation for human foods. For other heavy metals the concentration were lower than permissible limitation for human foods.

  • Survey of Isfahan Householdsí women Reuse Knowledge on Solid Wastes Recovery and Reuse

  • ( Gh. Omrani, Ph.D.,   A.H. Mahvi, Ph.D.,   S.H. Mirhendi, MSPH )
    Dept. of Environmental Health Engineering , Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Keywords :   Solid Waste Recycling , Household Women , Isfahan
    Abstract :
      Solid waste recovery from the source point of production in Isfahan was planned in 1994. At first, this program was started in zone 4 with 2100 families and 60 tons of solid wastes per day. The amount of recycled materials was about 3% of total solid waste.
      At the second step, all parts of the city (10 zones) were studied and covered by this plan, recovering about 5% of the total solid wastes before being mixed with the garbage. The good results of the plan led to the establishment of "Recovery and Reuse of Solid Waste Organization" in Isfahan.
      In order to optimize the recovery program a survey was conducted to assess the knowledge of households. 700 questionnaires were completed by face to face method and the data were analyzed in five sections.
      Results showed that 29.8% of the questioned women were well aware of the importance of solid waste recovery and 43.3% had only little knowledge and rest had no information about solid waste recycling and reuse.
      Results also showed that 48% of women had got their information from radio or television and the rest from municipality. 32.2% of households had delivered the recovered materials to personnel of municipality and 10% had delivered the recovered materials to the hawker collectors. 93.8% of households were interested to cooperate with the municipality and among them 61.5% and 17.3% had academic and elementary studies, respectively.

  • Impacts of the Lead and Zinc Factory of Zanjan on the Regionís Groundwater and Preparation of Pollution Control Guideline

  • ( 1J. Nouri, Ph.D.,   2S. Eskandarpour, M.S. )
    1- Dept. of Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences     2- Faculty of Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

    Keywords :   Heavy Metals , Groundwater , Pollution , Zanjan
    Abstract :
      The Lead and Zinc Company of Zanjan is located at 12Km east of Zanjan on the deposits of igneous rocks. The site of the Plant, being covered by prevailing wind blowing from north-east to south-west of the area (toward the city), being placed on the aquifers which are the main source of potable water of the region and, being placed at a distance of only 12 Km from the city and regarding its high pollution potential, is not correctly selected.
      Also the level of lead may be increased in the blood of workers employed in the plant. All of these problems have worried the workers and people living around the plant and in the city of Zanjan.
      In this research, 20 water samples from 10 wells located at less than 1 Km away from the plant, were collected, during spring and summer in order to analyze the heavy metals. Also 12 samples from 6 potable water wells of Zanjan in the villages of Dizaj and Sayan, located around the Plant, were selected.
      The heavy metals in the potable water wells, *most of them located in Dizaj and Sayan*, were less than the standard level of potable water and no contamination by heavy metals was observed in the 10 wells sampled inside and outside the Plant yard. Only well No.1 located less than 200 meters away from the evaporation tanks and cake filters in the open air showed to be contaminated with lead.
      So, the source of contamination should promptly be controlled in order to prevent the contamination of surrounding potable water resources and also the potable water of the city and to prevent any unpleasant event.
      Regarding the wrong site selection of the Plant and because it is not possible to change the Plant site, the only ways for controlling the contamination of environment by the Plant are: appropriate environmental management system of the Plant, application of environmental standards in industrial development plans, carrying out the environment control criteria, appointing an environmental committee for supervising the performance of management system and increasing the environmental knowledge of employees and managers.
      Using the instructions for elimination of pollutants, such as isolating the evaporation tanks, maintaining and changing the broken filters, recognition of areas contaminated by raw materials of the Plant and isolating them, placing the waste materials in closed areas and away from surface and groundwater resources and finally providing an environmental management system, may all be the effective measures in reducing and elimination of pollution in this industry.

  • Groundwater Contamination in the West of Tehran and the Sustainable Development of Water Resources of the region

  • ( 1K. Hakimpour, MSPH,   2S. Nasseri, Ph.D. )
    1- Dept. of Environmental Health, School of occupational Hygiene     2- Dept. of Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Keywords :   Groundwater Contamination , Tehran , Wastewater , Industries , and sustainable development
    Abstract :
      Development without rational environmental considerations has always had negative impacts on the environment. The most important environmental problems such as air and water pollution (including surface waters and groundwater) have been occurred due to the construction of industrial zones without any limitation.
      In this research, the west region of Tehran, which is called as an industrial zone, was selected to be studied. In this zone, many industries and also residential areas are located. Because of the high cost of constructing wastewater treatment plants, some of the industry discharge their wastewater either to the nearest surface waters (Kan and Vardavard rivers) and in residential areas into absorbing wells.
      Industries with appropriate wastewater facilities in the area are rare and most of them have a lot of operation and maintenance problems. Due to water shortage, deep wells are now the main resources which supply the domestic water demand of Tehran and this approach may be intestified in the future. Results of several qualitative analyses in groundwater sources of the region showed some contamination, especially in southern areas.
      This may be related to inappropriate disposal of domestic and effluents into the wells, rivers and the environment. Some recommendations for the qualitative improvement of water resources in the region have presented.
      Revision of the existing regulations and continuous monitoring has been identified as the essential steps toward sustainable development of water resources.

  • Transport of Pathogens through Soils and Aquifers and itís Role on Water Resources Boundaries Determination

  • ( M. Nourisepehr, MSPH )
    Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences

    Keywords :   Pathogens , Aquifers , Quality of soil , Groundwater , Boundaries
    Abstract :
      Pathogens have recently polluted intensively groundwater aquifers. Groundwater resources may be polluted by different species of pathogens.
      The fate of pathogenic microorganisms in soils and aquifers and the idea the idea that groundwater resources lack any type of microbiological pollution, is no more accepted. Their transport and persistence in these environments primarily govern the presence of pathogens.
      Survival and transport of pathogens in soil and aquifers are controlled by four major factors: climate conditions (temperature, rainfall), type of soil and aquifer composition (texture, PH.,water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity), fluid properties, and type of pathogen.
      Bacterial transport is controlled by soil porosity and the degree of soil saturation with water. Under saturation conditions, bacteria may be transported over much greater distances than under unsaturated conditions. The ionic strength of fluid is another effective factor for bacterial transport through soils.
      Studies have shown that pathogen transport through soils is promoted by heavy rainfall and bacterial contamination of walls was found to coincide with periods of heavy rainfalls.
      Laboratory experiments with sludge-soil mixtures challenged with bacterial indicators TC and FC, have shown that only heavy rainfall (12.3 cm/day ) promote significant downward transport of the bacteria to the bottom of inch- deep column.
      Because of small size, viruses are less subject to straining in sandy aquifers and soils compared with bacteria. Therefore bacteria do not serve as good indicators for virus transport into groundwater systems.
      Under field conditions, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci originating from a septic tank system were efficiently retained by a loamy sand soil and were detected at levels less than 1 count per 100ml of groundwater. Virus binding to soils is affected by soil texture (clay , hematite,... ). It was concluded that the relatively high ionic strength of the septic tank effluents (1000-3100 *s/cm ) allowed virus adsorption in the vicinity of the septic systems.
      Geostatistical techniques have been considered for estimating virus inactivation in groundwater systems in order to predict safe septic distances for drinking water well installation in the vicinity of septic tank drain fields. In different b studies biotic and abiotic tracers have been used for microorganism transport.
      In this paper the resistance of microorganisms in soils are analyzed. Also, the effective factors on adsorption and transportation of microorganism (bacteria, virus, protozoa ) are discussed. Finally, application of biotic and abiotic tracers in microorganism transportationís details are analyzed.

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