Journal   of   Man and Environment

( Vol.1 , No.3,4 , Spring and summer 1999 )

  • Pesticide Usage and its Effects on groundwater Contamination in Shahriar Region

  • ( 1M. Ehteshami, Ph.D.,   2N. Khorasani, Ph.D.,   3A. Izaddootar, M.S. )
    1- Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Khajeh Nassiredin Toosi       2- Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
    3- Mahab-Ghods Consulting and Engineering Company

    Keywords :   Pesticides, Pollution , Simulation , Groundwater , Agriculture
    Abstract :
      In order to study the effects of agricultural pesticide usage on groundwater contamination in Shahriar Region, in the first step, relevant data of soil, geology, topography, climatology and pesticide formulation and usage were collected.
      The DRASTIC model was selected between three screening models ( DRASTIC, SEEOAGE, SOI ) for evaluating pesticide effects on groundwater resources. Also, the CMLS simulation model was selected for evaluation pesticide movement in the aquifer.
      With the use of DRASTIC index, areas with high potential of groundwater contamination were identified. Movement of pesticides such as Benomyl, Oxydemeton-methyl, Captan and Atrazin were simulated by CMLS model for all suspected locations found in the first step.
      Review of simulated results showed that Oxydemeton-methyl, Captan and Atrazine in a short period of time (47,77,92 days ) could reach at 1.5 meter depth of soil profile.

  • Survey on the Role of Operational Parameters on the Effectiveness of Starch for Water Turbidity removal

  • ( N. Goudarzi, Ph.D.,   S. Nasseri, Ph.D.,   H. Malekafzali, Ph.D.,   A. Mesbah, Ph.D.,   A. H. Mahvi, Ph.D.,   K. Imandel, Ph.D.,   B. Golestan, M.S. )
    Dept. of Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Keywords :   Turbidity , Water Treatment , Starch
    Abstract :
      Suspended Solids in surface water resources have mostly negative electrical charges, because of ion adsorption and dissociation of ionizable groups. This phenomena leads to stable colloidal turbidity in water systems, which could be removed in water treatment plants through coagulation and flocculation processes.
      In this research, use of starch (as a natural polyelectrolyte and coagulant) was studied and operational parameters such as pH, temperature, settling and flocculation time, were considered as the major variables for turbidity removal.
      Results showed that using starch as coagulant-aid, with Alum and ferric chloride, the optimum flocculation and settling times were 15 and 10 minutes, respectively, for 3 different levels of turbidity. Also, 7.4-7.8 and 10-15 °C , were obtained as the optimum pH and temperature ranges.

  • A Systematic Approach for Analyzing Flow Characteristics of Fixed- Activated Sludge (FAS) Reactors

  • ( R. Nabizadeh, MSPH,   A. Mesdaghinia, Ph.D.,   S. Nasseri, Ph.D.,   A. H. Mahvi, Ph.D.,   M. Shariat, Ph.D. )
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Environmental Health Engineering

    Keywords :   Fixed Activated Sludge , Aerated Submerged Fixed Film Reactor , ASFFR , Hydraulic Regime , Dispersion Number, Biological Aerated Filter , BAF , Mixing
    Abstract :
      Fixed Activated Sludge (FAS) is one of the biological systems in treating different types of wastewater containing organic substances. This article presents the results of a preliminary phase of a study with the basic objective of determining the performance pattern of a fixed activated Sludge system in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater in a pilot scale.
      Regarding that the hydraulic characteristics of such systems play an important role in the behavior, design and interpretation of reactor’s data, the hydraulic regime of the system was studied and determined with a pulse input of rhodamine B into the system. Also various air supply and water flows were experienced during the tracer study as independent variables.
      Experimental data in 16 different condition have been collected and dispersion number (d/ul) in each condition was determined using a computer program that was developed in this research. Furthermore, statistical patterns have been used to evaluate the fitness of data in each condition with the ideal completely mixed model.
      Finally an index was proposed to determine the relative role of air supply in mixing. Results Showed that in a wide range of air supply and water flows, completely mixed condition is achievable in such systems. The content of the article is so organized that the complete methodology and computative approaches for performing flow pattern characterization in water and wastewater treatment systems are easily available.

  • Identification of Earthworms Species (Eiseniafoetida) in Mazandaran Province

  • ( 1Gh. Omrani, Ph.D.,   2Y. Ashoori, MSPH,   3N. Khorasani, Ph.D. )
    1- Dept. of Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences       2- Faculty of Environmental, Science and Research Branch, I.A.U.
    3- Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran

    Keywords :   Earthworms , Eisenia foetida , Mazandaran
    Abstract :
      Limitation of Under-Cultivation lands in Iran and due to population growth, we forced to promote agricultural productivity per area unit in several ways, for instance, by increasing soil fertility. Regarding the fact that sources of fertilizers consumed in our country, such as organic and chemical ones, are limited, it seems indispensable to utilize organic fertilizers produced by earthworms.
      Since environmental conditions in different parts of the country are different and the optimum conditions for different species of earthworms and their capabilities in feeding on organic wastes are not the same, to achieve the above-mentioned objectives, comprehensive studies must be carried out to identify the different species of earthworms in our country.
      Also, to identify the species of earthworms, a great importance must be given to Mazandaran province, because this province has favorable environmental conditions.
      In this research, 220 earthworms were fixed in test-tubes based on Graff's fixation method for morphological studies and eight different species were identified, (18.1% as E-foetide species), with significant in distribution in Mazandaran province.

  • Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) was investigated in central building Organization as well as a similar building as the control one of a State in 1375 in Tehran

  • ( F. Golbabaei, Ph.D.,   Z. Zamanian,   K. Mohammad, Ph.D.,   S. Nasseri, Ph.D.,   A. H. Mahvi, Ph.D. )
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Environmental Health Engineering

    Keywords :   Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) , Total dust , Lead , Thermal Comfort
    Abstract :
      In this research total dust and lead concentrations were evaluated on different floors of the case and control buildings. The measurements were done in different geographical directions as well as outdoor concentrations in the same heights. Staff’s thermal comfort was also studied via appropriate questionnaire.
      The results indicated that total dust and lead concentrations on 1st and 2nd floors are higher than the other floors in the case building (p<0.0001). The same findings were obtained for the outdoor concentrations. However the results of total dust did not show any differences in the control building but the amount of lead was higher in the lower floors than the upper floors and was the same as the case building.
      According to climatic parameters findings (T= 24-31°C and RH= 30-46%) and ASHRAE comfort criteria, it is found that the case building is not completely a comfort zone in viewpoint of thermal satisfaction of personal.

  • Biological Phosphorus Removal from Municipal Wastewater, using Anaerobic- Aerobic Reactors

  • ( A. A. Najafpur, Ph.D.,   M. Shariat, Ph.D.,   A. Mesdaghinia, Ph.D.,   S. Nasseri, Ph.D.,   A. H. Mahvi, Ph.D. )
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Dept. of Environmental Health Engineering

    Keywords :   Biological phosphorus removal , Municipal wastewater
    Abstract :
      According to the geographical situation of Iran, water supply has significant deficiencies. Therefor, maintenance of water quality is of great importance. Reduction of pollutants is required in order to control the water quality.
      Keeping in mind, the accelerating effects of chemical phosphorus compounds on the algae and other aquatic plants and consequent inappropriate variations of the ecosystem, reduction of phosphorus concentrations up to the safe level in effluent should be considered as the main object. Conventional methods of municipal wastewater treatment are not capable of reducing the phosphorus level.
      In this research a pilot plant with the capacity of wastewater for 40 persons has been constructed.

  • Feasibility Study about the usage of ground water resources instead of the surface ones at Karron-Dez Catchment area

  • ( 1N. Djaafarzadeh, Ph.D.,   2K. Morovati, M.S.,   2H. Kaabi, M.S.,   2A. Lahijanzadeh, M.S.,   2S. Rostami, M.S.,   2A. Mahdaviani, M.S. )
    1- Dept. of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences     2- Khoozestan office Environmental Protection, Ahvaz

    Keywords :   Karron River , Ground water , Water pollution
    Abstract :
      In this research program, the environmental impacts of the cane suger farmlands and the related industries planned for construction near Karoon and Dez rivers areas, were studied.
      After collecting the library data, completing the questionary sheets and tables, and gathering some important information about the effluent discharges into the rivers, 13 sampling stations on the Karoon river have been selected and planned for a comprehensive sampling and analysing program in order to determine the water quality indices parameters.
      By using the above-mentioned data, the probable pollution loads and some environmental consequences(related to the cane sugar processes) were estimated.
      Finally, general conclusions and related recommendations were presented.

  • Indication of Social Learning Indicators for Achievement of Sustainable Development

  • ( M. Tabibian, Ph.D. )
    Tehran University , Faculty of Environment

    Keywords :   Sustainability , Index , Collective learning , Socio-cultural erosion , Ecogical degradation
    Abstract :
      There seems to be agreement that our present society whether it is viewed from the global, national, or even local perspective- is far from being sustainable. Furthermore, most indicators, especially global new, show that this unsustainability is increasing, often exponentially.
      Generally, these indicators pertain to ecological degradation such as resource depletion, deforestation, and various forms of pollution and waste generation, as well as global environmental changes, including Ozone depletion and climate change. There are, to our knowledge, very few indicators that measure the often parallel degradation of society or, as we call it, "sociocultural erosion".
      This is due in part to profound disagreement about what constitutes sociocultural erosion and to the lack of conceptualization of the relation between societal and ecological degradation.
      If one claims, however, as many people do. That ecological degradation has societal origins of causes, then it is important to measure those societal factors. Here is where indicators of social environmental learning come into play.
      This paper is, above all, conceptual in nature. It is rooted in a the oretical analysis of the present situation, aimed at a collective learning process that will lead to a way out of growing global ecological and sociocultural unsustainability.
      The criteria that will measure progress along this collective learning process are therefore not empirically grounded, but again, conceptual in nature. Translating these criteria into empirical measurements remains to be done and will constitute another step in our research beyond this paper.

  • The Role of Land-Use in the Formation of Heat Islands and the Resultant Air Pollution in the City of Tehran

  • ( 1H. Bahraini, Ph.D.,   1H. Khoshpour,   2N. Barakpour )
    1- Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran       2- Faculty of Find Arts, University of Tehran

    Keywords :   Heat island, Land-use , Air pollution , City of Tehran
    Abstract :
      The ever increasing intervention in environment has led to undesirable consequences, including extensive loss of natural resources, deterioration of landscapes, extension of animal and plant species, climate change and air and water pollution.
      Air pollution in large urban areas such as Tehran which could be manifested by a mismatch between urban activities and the ecological capabilities of its setting to respond to the needs of those activities, has now reached its critical level. Various factors are responsible for the air pollution in Tehran. It is said that some 70 percent is due to motor vehicles.
      There are also a few other factors, which do not directly produce pollution, but cause air stagnation and concentration of pollutants over urban areas. One of these factors is natural and made-made heights such as high-rise buildings. The most significant factor of this kind, however, which plays a determinant role in prevention of natural ventilation in the city and concentration of pollutants, is heat islands.
      The subject has been left almost unknown in Iran. This paper will elaborate on the heat islands map of Tehran, which was developed for the first time in the country on the basis of satellite data. The findings make various analysis, such as the role of urban activities in environmental changes, and particularly climate change and pollution in urban area, possible. The focus here is on impact of urbanization on airflow and temperature.
      Heat retained in buildings and given off together with other heat through heating and air conditioning, as well as radiation from characteristically urban surfaces, causes increased air temperature which will bulge over building clusters to form the "urban heat island", making air less stable above and more stable within the heat island.
      Airflow above obstructions generally rises over the urban area due to contributions of the heat and airflow from below.

  • Survey on Natural Environment of the Central Alborz Protected Region (Southern Part)

  • ( 1J. Nouri, Ph.D.,   2A.A. Rajaei, M.S. )
    1- Dept. of Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences       2- Department of the Environment

    Keywords :   Protected Region , Safe and Unsafe Region , Vegetation , Environmental Identification
    Abstract :
      Alborz Protected Region has nearly 30 years of valuable protected and historical heritation. It has a specific ecological situation towards biodiversity of fauna and flora in neighboring city of Tehran.
      Alborz Protected Region, with 399.000 hectares is located in the central part of Alborz mountains at 51°20` to 51°42`east longitude and 35°46` to 36°11`north latitude between the provinces of Tehran and Mazandaran. Western part of the region with about 91.000 hectares, is located in Karaj City, with 182 plant species and 25 species of mammals. Besides, the region contains 26 villages, increasing the sensitivity of this protected area.
      The maximum average temperature of the region is 21.6°C and the minimum is -2.8°C. The annual precipition is around 650mm. Karaj and Jadjrud rivers and lake of Amir Kabir Dam are located in this region.
      Amir Kabir Dam, with 205 million cubic meter reservoir and latitude of 174 meter, is one of the artificial lakes of the region with fresh water and varietyof fish, such as trout, which is a native fish to this area, Varicorhinus sp., Leuciscus sp. and Coregonus laveratus which are introduced to this lake from Belgium.
      Some variety of plant and animal plankton's exist in the lake, and their number increased. However, the population is affected due to human interferences. Some small branches of lake rivers are suitable and habitate for aquatic insects.
      Investigation and sampling of different kinds of fish were performed by trapping. Results showed the accumulations and kinds of fish at the end part of the lake. In autumn and winter, up to Farvardin, the lake receives various varieties of ducks, which immigrate to this aquatic environment of winter life.
      By looking at the progress and investigation and ecological samplings which have been done during the past 30 years, valuable information and data are available at this research. The main objective, of this study was preparing the region identification of southern part of Alborz, which has been done by aquatic and terrestrial samplings of the region.
      In investigation on vegetation, along with the needed plots-making, the situation of safe and unsafe region were recognized. The results showed that the safe region on over 3200 m of Sotak area was quite normal, while the unsafe areas were poor and negative. Also, based on its potentials, the region may be categorized as protective and recreative.

  • International Environmental Protection Action, Results

  • ( N. Saed, M.S. )
    Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran

    Keywords :   Protection , Treaty , International Custom , International Organizations , Judiced Decisions
    Abstract :
      Science and technology not only has allowed the mankind to overcome diseases, to prolong their lives, to guarantee daily nutrition, to afford protection against natural disasters and to overcome life difficulties, but also has provided possibility of incorrect exploitation of scientific findings and results for interference with the ecological balance.
      Increasing production and use of chemical substances, incorrect exploitation of natural resources, destruction of forests, extensive pollution in big cities and densely populated areas, borning ability of soil herbicides, pesticides and toxic wastes are some examples for human activities that have caused the present status of the environment.
      Prevention, repel and at least reduction of determental effects of mankind activities on the environment through setting regulations is the cornerstone of (International and National) Environmental law.
      In the international level, intenational society members, on their own intiatives and also in implementation of the principles of environmental law, have accepted that human environment has criticel status, and to resolve this problem, sufficient international (and national) measures should be taken. At the view of international law, this measures appear as international customs, treaties, judicied decisions and decisions of international organizations.
      Because the environment either in nature and attributes, or its degradating elements and their consequences are not limited to national boundaries, therefore, it is necessary to emphasis on international cooperation and coordinated activities to reduce world population growth, increase the authority of international organizations, taking national and international measures of environmental protection by states and their indiscriminate implementation, reducing development distance between states in technological and economic aspects, observing environmental considerations in development policies, and evaluation of national regimes governing over national and international environmental policy-makings.

    For any technical problem about this site, please contact us at : [email protected]