J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2009, No 40

Investigation on dust control systems and determination of emission rate in Mashhad asphaltplants

Nabiollah Mansuri1(Corresponding author)

Alinejad Javad2

1-Graduate School of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Campus, Islamic Azad University, Tehran
2-Faculty of Environmental, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran


Asphaltplants are a group of air pollutants sources that have effective role in dust emissions in the atmosphere. There are 5 asphaltplants in the mashhad near suburb area which may rise the city air pollution and cause problems for natural and residential environment. In this reaserch necessary data depend on subject such as factories dust collector specifications, production rates and duration of activity in day and in a year as well as their situations near the Mashhad city and wind direction have collected. Four factories had wet scrubbers and the other one had no any industrial treatment system.
The dust control systems of factories have assessed by gravimeteric method by sampling of dust from entrance as well as the exhaust air of the wet scrubbers using Gravimat SHC 502. For better achievement, 3 samples befor and 3 samples after wet scrubber were taken. Results of samplings have showed that the final exhaust air were still polluted with high concentrated dust. The concentration of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) in the stacks were in the 260-345mg/m3 range.
In the same time, results of samplings before control systems showed the TSP concentration of 270-485mg/m3 range. Calculation of treatment systems efficiencies have showed %31.1, %32.2, %23.1and %26.8 efficiency in Mashhad Municipality, Neumooneh, Rahban and Astan e Ghods Razavi factories respectively. Above the numbers showed very low efficiency which were mainly due to some what wrong desighn in wet scrubber and watering system as well as weak maintenance of the systems.
Comparing the emissions with national emission standard have revealed that all of the factories were not in the allowable range. The emission factors have also calculated as 54.8, 62.1, 70.5, 75.7 and 179.3 gr/tons of production in Neumooneh, Mamarbeton, Mashhad Municipality, Rahban and Astan e Ghods Razavi factories respectively only for emission from the stack of process activities except for fuel burning.


Key words:Wet scrubber, Environmental Pollution, Emission Factor, air pollution

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2009, No 40

Application of welled diffuser on T shaped environmental parallel noise barriers

Mohammad-Reza Monazzam1(Corresponding author)


Parvin Nassiri1

Niloofar Javidroozi1

1-Occ. Hyg. Dep, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences


The paper presents the results of an investigation on the acoustic performance of vertical profile parallel barriers with quadratic residue diffuser tops and faces. A 2D boundary element method (BEM) was used to predict the barrier insertion loss. The results of rigid and with absorptive coverage were also calculated for comparisons.
Using QRD on the top surface and faces of all vertical profile parallel barrier models presented here is found to improve the efficiency of barriers compared with fully absorptive equivalent parallel barrier at the examined receiver positions.
It is found that reducing the design frequency of QRD shifts the performance improvement towards lower frequency, and therefore the most efficient model for vertical profile parallel traffic noise barrier is a setup treated with QRDs tuned to around 400 Hz. The overall performance improvement by the above diffusive barrier is predicted to be 5.8 dB (A) compared to its rigid equivalent barrier. It is also found that if increase in absorption coefficient of QRD by well reduction destroys the effect of wells in resonance; it will also have negative effect on the performance of parallel QRD barrier and will reduce the overall A-weighted insertion loss of the reactive barriers.


Key words: Parallel Noise Barrier, diffuser, Boundary Element Method

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2009, No 40

Comparison between anaerobic treatability of municipal landfill leachate containing both total and soluble substrate

Alireza Shokooh1(Corresponding author)

Edvin Safari2

Seeyed Hossein Hashemi3

Taghi Ebadi1

1-Technical faculty of khajenassir university
2-Faculty of environmental Tehran university
3-Research center science and environment


This study investigated the treatability of both Landfill and Compost factory leach ate of Mashhad city using lab-scale completely mixed batch reactor (CMBR). For this reason 4 CMBRs were used in parallel form that reactors 1 and 3 in row were containing leach ate from landfill and compost factory with total Substrate and reactors 2 and 4 in row were containing leach ate from landfill and compost factory with soluble Substrate.
The variation of COD, pH and the amount of produced Bio-gas by time were investigated within the temperature of 35C. As the leachate was young, the initial pH in the all reactors was low (5-5.5). In the reactor which was containing total Substrate didn't observed significant variation in pH; but in 2 other reactor the pH over look to near 8.3. Concentration of initial COD in the reactors 1 to 4 in row 7090, 66710, 89501 and 77760 mg/l.
As the high concentration of mineral material and to be toxic of them, reduction of COD in the reactors 1 and 3 were slowly and the percent of removal COD in row was 33% and 35%. In addition the value of removal COD in reactors 2 and 4 observed in row 96% and 97%. These results indicated high rate anaerobic processes could be effective in the treatment of young leach ate.
The volume of biogas produced in reactors 1 to 4 in row were 25, 86, 21 and 93 L. in addition, the maximum biogas yield in reactors 1 and 3 was negligible and the rectors 2 and 4 in row 0.5 and 0.54 L/g COD removal. Finally a simple module was obtained which forecast the bio-gas production based on kinetic coefficient of batch reactors.


Key words:leachate, anaerobic treatment, batch reactor, bio-gas

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2009, No 40

Study and compression of ferric chloride and acid cracking pretreatments in yield increasing of olive mill wastewater photocatalysis treatment

Reza Rezaei 1(Corresponding author)

Farzaneh Vahabzadeh2

Shahrzad Fazel3

1-Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
2-Prof of Amir Kabir University, Faculty of Eng. Chemistry
3-Assisstant of professor of Amir Kabir University


In this work, ferric coagulation and acid cracking as olive mill wastewater (OMW) pretreatments during photocatalysis process were compared in batch recirculation reactor. As ferric ions influence, ferric coagulation has preference over acid cracking. Ferric ions influence on intensification of penolic components absorption on TiO2 surface in initial and oxidize organic pollutant during photocatalysis treatment.
In this investigation, COD and total phenolic (TPh) reduction were studied with altering TiO2 concentration and also pH as main effects. The results revealed that the percentage removals of COD and TPh in ferric coagulation were 69.24% and 88.16% respectively, whereas these percentage removals in acid cracking were 62.66% and 57.87% respectively.


Key words: Olive mill wastewater, coagulation, acid cracking, photocatalysis, TiO2

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2009, No 40

Control of induced environmental vibrations to personnel by trench barrier

Gholam-Abbas Shirali1(Corresponding author)


Masoud Rafie1

1-Iran, Khuzestan, Ahwaz Jundishapour University of Medical Sciences


The aim of this study was to eliminate the environmental vibrations by use of filled trench in administrative building of steel Co.
For assessment of the effects of vibration on human, on the each of the three floors of the administrative building, which was overshadowed by vibration, resulting from oxygen unit, 14 points were determined and the induced environmental vibrations to personnel according to international standard organization-2631 were measured in those points.
The results of measurements have shown that a ground vibration was over the fatigue in adjacent building at 25 meters of oxygen unit– Decreased Proficiency Boundary and at some points was above the exposure limit.
For reduction of the induced ground vibrations to the adjacent building, this research has designed a method using of sand and two layers of Styrofoam filled trench. The measurements done that had before and after done by trench, have shown that, on average the vibration was reducing around 50% to 70%.


Key words: Environmental Vibration, Rayleigh waves, trench barrier, FDPB and EL

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2009, No 40

Investigation of compacted clayey liner proficiency for natural removal of generated leachate pollutants in municipal solid waste landfill; Case study: Kahrizak landfill

Mohammad Ali Abduli1

M. Jalili Ghazi Zade2 (Corresponding author)

1-Prof., Faculty of Environment, Tehran University
2-Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Environment, Tehran University


Use of natural attenuation landfill (NAL) is one of the methods for landfilling of municipal waste that principal concept of its designing is based on natural leachate permeability in soil and it is expected that leachate is treated naturally by unsaturated soil which is located under landfill.
Nowadays, using of compacted clayey liners can be count as one investigable choice for natural removal of leachate pollutants because it has less cost in comparison with other liners and also in most parts of Iran (especially in Kahrizak region), proper material are available.
Hence, compacted clayey liner proficiency for removal of important leachate pollutants was examined in laboratory scale by using of Kahrizak landfill soil and in touch with this site leachate. For the purpose of more similarity between laboratory model and real condition, new leachate was located on compacted clayey soil every day (52 days) until the time that the soil naturally was saturated and as well as sample permeability was determined, concentration of exit leachate pollutants from saturated soil was measured.
Carried out investigation about clayey liner ability for natural removal of important and worrisome pollutants of Kahrizak landfill leachate shows that although this kind of liner ability for removing phosphate and to some extent sulfate, but other pollutants like COD, BOD, nitrate, bicarbonate and chloride either omitted very lowly or never removed.


Key words: Compacted Clayey Liner, Leachate, Kahrizak Landfill

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2009, No 40

Environmental planning by using GIS (Case study: Kahak country)

Ali Alesheikh1

Saeed Motahari2(Corresponding author)

Hashem Khoshnam3

Leila Ganjali3

Atekeh Pahlevan4

1-Department of GIS engineering K.N.Toosi university of Technology, Tehran
2-Department of science and environmental technology, Rodehen Branch, Islamic Azad University
3-Faculty of Environment, Tehran University
4-Faculty of Environment & Energy, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University


To pay attention to environmental planning in order to appropriate and stable use of total land capability and prevent probable environmental crisises is one of the new subjects which is considered by governmental managers in recent years.
In this research environmental planning of Kahak Country in Qum province was studied in 150000 and 250000 scales. The method is based on integrated planning and management model by using systematic analysis. There fore environmental resources were identified and analyzed in two sectors: ecological and socioeconomic resources. Digitized map of studied country area was provided to determine ecological land capability and plan of Kahak Country.
Different data was analyzed and classified with the use of GIS (Geographical Information System). The ecological land capability of was determined by using Makhdoum model and overlaying the different information layers in GIS environmental program. The limitations and capabilities of each sector were categorized and prioritized.
Finally 6 ideas were mentioned related to each sector and after combination of ideas, different solutions were provided. Then GAM (Goals Achievement Matrix) method was chosen by appropriate solution among various ones.


Key words:Planning, Land use, Kahak, Environment, GIS

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2009, No 40

Investigation on global aquaculture development and it's impacts on reduction of stress on marine resources

Roxana Moogouei1(Corresponding author)

Reza Arjmandi1

1-Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University


The objective of this papers is to investigate impacts of aquaculture. The rate of growth of aquaculture exceeds that experienced by other animal food producing sectors.
By reducing the number of fishing through open - ocean capture methods, aquaculture might be considered as a "best practice" for the protection of marine ecosystems.
Development of aquaculture, promotion of new fish varieties production, productivity enhancement, establishment of hatchery facilities and formation of an effective support organization are the most important strategies.
Nowadays, At least 60% of the threatened species were decreased as a result of negative effects to habitat. Aquaculture provides possibility of culturing endangered species. In this paper world statistics on annual growth of aquaculture and important culture species from the past to date will be compared. Then some programs are explained for protection of marine ecosystems for protection of marine eco systems.

Key words:aquaculture; annual growth; production; food; extinction, marine resources

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2009, No 40

Evaluation of biological removal efficiencies of mercury by the Kor river bacteria

Farshid Kafilzadeh1(Corresponding author)

Nima Mirzaei

Mohammad Kargar

Mehdi Kargar

1-Department of microbiology Islamic Azad University of Jahrom


Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals. Industrial uses of mercury have led to mercury pollution of the environment. One of the vast strategies to removal of mercury from environment and factories effluent is usage of residing bacteria in mercury contaminated areas.
These bacteria can remove mercury using, by reduction process of Hg (II) to Hg (0). The Kor River in the Fars province is highly polluted to mercury due to neighboring to the different industries. In this study the samples were collected from water and sediments of four stations through the Kor River in four seasons (from summer 2006 to spring 2007).
Isolation of mercury resistant bacteria was performed using enrichment culture method and directly plating on agar containing mercury. Mercury resistant levels were determined in LB broth containing 10 to 90 mg of Hgcl2 per liter. Mercury removal efficiencies among the most mercury resistant isolates were calculated by measuring of the remaining mercury in the media.
Different bacterial genera such as Pseudomonas sp., E.coli, Bacillus sp., Serratia marcescens and etc. were identified as mercury resistant bacteria. Some of the isolates were able to tolerate concentrations up to 70 mg of Hgcl2 per liter. Mercury elimination ability of the isolates was different between 28 to 86 percentages. Maximum of mercury elimination efficiency was observed in Pseudomonas sp.3 isolated in spring. This isolate can be ideal for using in biological treatment of mercury from industrial wastewaters.

Key words: Mercury, biological elimination of mercury, mercury resistant bacteria, Kor River

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2009, No 40

Investigation of dust effects resulting from cement industries on variation and density of rangeland vegetation cover Case study: Abyek cement factory

Mohammad Hassan Sadeghi Ravesh1

Nematollah Khorasani2(Corresponding author)


1-Ph.D candidate in the Department of Environmental Management , Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University And Academic Staff of Environment , Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University
2-Professor of environment, Faculty of fishering & environment, Tehran University


Contaminants resulting from cement industry include dust, C compounds, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. Through the mentioned materials dust is more important Than the other Pollutant As it's high production and emission in the environment.
In this research the effects of dust resulting from Abyek Cement Factory on diversity and density of rangeland vegetation cover were studied. Types and amounts of soil elements, variation and density of rangeland vegetation and amount of cement sedimentation on plants organs in various distances and aspects were investigated.
The results of analysis of soil samples elements, amount of dust sedimentation on vegetation organs and assessment of vegetation cover density show that there is an inverted correlation between variation and density of vegetation cover and dust sedimentation exiting from factor smokestacks.
Sedimentation amount is reduced as much as we get far away from emission resource. The sedimentation amount is more and vegetation cover variation is less in the factor surroundings. In this area some resistant species such ac Artemisia sp and Rosa sp are replaced.

Key words: Abyek, cement, dust, variation, vegetation cover

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2009, No 40

A survey on factors affecting avifaunal distribution and abundance at Kolah Ghazi national park and mouteh wildife refuge, esfahan province

Mohammad Kaboli1

Mahmoud Karami2

Ruzbeh Behruz3(Corresponding author)

Saeedeh Baniasadi3

Sahebeh Karimi3

1-Assistant Professor, Department of Fishery and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
2-Professor, Department of Fishery and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
3-M.S. in Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran


To identify the distribution pattern and abundance of avifauna at Kolah Ghazi National Park and Mouteh Wildlife Refuge, some environmental factors (related to climate, vegetation, and geomorphology) was investigated.
The two study areas were sampled according to a 1*1 km grid design. A subset of 405 squares was randomly chosen and sampled. Data's were analyzed by using ordination and multiple regression. The results show that we can distinguish three main poles at avifaunal distribution pattern in these areas.
Bird species inhabitant of flat sedimentary areas (e.g.Houbara Bustard and Desert Wheatear), well-adjusted bird species to human and their farms and gardens (for example crows, Roller and wagtails), and species dwelling in mountainous and/or rocky areas (Hume's Wheatear, Blue Blue Rock Thrush and Chough).
Topograplic features seem to be the main factors structuring avifaunal composition and abundance at the two areas. Avifauna composition and richness are mainly correlated with the complexity of the substrate, but avifauna richness increases with altitude, probably in response to decreasing aridity. These results contrast with these generally observed in mid-latitude regions of the Palaeartic.

Key words: Kolah Ghazi National Park, Mouteh Wildife Refuge, bird distribution and abundance, topography, vegetation, climate

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2009, No 40

The effect of toxic ammonia on liver tissue of common carp (cyprinus carpio)

Tahereh Naji1(Corresponding author)

Hosein Khara2

Mina Rostami3

Elnaz Nasiri Parman4

1-Assistant professor of Pharmacy Science Branch ,Islamic Azad University Tehran, Iran
2-Assistant professor Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
3-Assistant professor of Faculty Veterinary, University of Tehran
4-Student of Azad University, Science and Research branch, Tehran, Iran


The aim of the present research is to study the toxic effects of Ammonia on the liver of Common carp(Cyprinus carpio),for this purpose ,first of all, the amount of LC50 for the toxic Ammonia for periods of 24,48,72 and96 hours when the Common carp was exposed to it was measured, then the changes in the histologic survery in the four tests groups placed under concentration of 8,14,20,25 mg/L Total Ammonia that equals with 0/31,0/88,1/73, 2/51 mg/L un-ionized Ammonia were compared with the control group.
The LC50 Ammonia amounts in 24,48,72 and96 hours periods were calculated to be 23/4,20/5,16/25,14/25 mg/L for total Ammonia and 2/20,1/85,1/45,0/99 mg/L for un-ionized ammonia, Respectively shows the high resistance of Common carp to ammonia.
The liver tissue were sampled in the experimental concentrations in periods of 24,48,72 and96 hours and the study of the smears prepared from these tissues showed clear changes including tissue necrosis, hemorrhage, existence of melanin and bile salt, infiltration, trombo thelebitis, cronic focal necrosis, conjestion, intracellular adema, anemia of Liver when the fish is exposed to Ammonia.

Key words: Common carp, Ammonia, Liver, LC50