J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2009, No.39

Presentation of an HSE-MS performance measuring model based on EFQM


Iraj Mohammadfam1(Corresponding author)

Amir Shekari2

Amir Hossein Khosroujerdi3

1-Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
2-Rahbaran System Atieh Company, Esfahan
3-Faculty of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences


The benefits obtained from executing integrated systems of Health, Safety and Environmental management has forced organizations to employ these systems in their processes.

In spite of implementing such systems in many organizations and companies, lack of a unique assessment system for monitoring, assessment and improvement may cause a decrease in the performance of organizations. 

In this paper, performance assessment model of HSE management system is designed by utilizing EFQM excellence model and international project management awards (IPMA).

This model has been verified and confirmed in two selected refinery units.

The results of the study reveal that using this model, we can compare organizations by considering HSE aspects and determine the strong points of organizations the areas capable of development. 

The findings emphasize the use of the existing model as a performance assessment method for HSE system in all organizations.


Key words: Health, safety and environment, performance, assessment model

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2009, No.39

Assessing the government’s role in environmental problems of Iran (An environmental economic approach)


Niloofar Moradhassel1 (Corresponding author)

Amir Hossein Mozayani2

1-Department of Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University
2-Department of Management, Tarbiat Moddares University


Due to the remarkable achievements in economic development over the past few decades, environmental degradation has been inevitable. To meet this problem, the first step is to identify the main sources of pollution which are discussed in this study with an emphasis on the role of the government. State activities like those of the private sector can be one of the main sources of pollution, especially in developing and less developed countries in which the governments play the main role in economic activities. The issue requires attention because the government not only has a great role in environmental degradation but also has the responsibility of environmental conservation. 

The present study aims at analyzing the role of the government in environmental degradation of Iran because the government’s huge share in the economic activities has caused serious environmental problems besides the undesirable economic consequences.

The results of the study indicate the government’s great share in pollution. The researchers have studied the economic activities in industry, agriculture, trade, transportation, etc. using a descriptive approach and also the causal relationship between pollution emission and capital formation in public and private sectors through econometric techniques. Finally, it has been discussed that at the present time, the re-engineering of the economic structure and the government’s role is a pre-requisite for the effectiveness of environmental policies.


Key words: Environment, government, pollution emission, air pollution, Iran, capital formation

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2009, No.39

H2S emission from Sabalan geothermal power plant and its control in such plants


Abdoreza Karbasi1

Faride Atabi2

Sepide Sahar Mirzaei2(Corresponding author)

1-Faculty of Environment, Tehran University
2-Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University



Visible steam emitting from the cooling tower and H2S smell are obvious environmental manifestations of a geothermal facility. They are usually coupled with concerns about exposure to the high toxicity of mercury and arsenic along with radon radiation. They have been, to a large extent, responsible for the perception that air quality is significantly affected by geothermal activities. In reality, air quality is affected by geothermal facilities a little, especially as compared to many other industries or fossil-fuel power plants. If the quality of air is considered in the construction and utilization of geothermal installations, worries about air quality will be removed. The key to success in air quality programs is the early collection of data, plant operational scenarios, educational programs, etc.

The present study aims at predicting dispersion pattern of one of the main gases of Sabalan geothermal power plants to find a solution for its probable negative effects.


Key words: Air pollution, geothermal power plants, sulfur dioxide

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2009, No.39

The study of the environmental impacts of Bandar Abbas zinc factory


Seyyed Ali Jozi1 (Corresponding author)


Fereshteh Sojoodi2

1-Faculty of Technical & Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch
2-Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas Branch


This study was carried out from 23 July 2006 to 20 May 2007 with the purpose of investigating the environmental effects of Bandar Abbas Zinc Plant activities. To this end, soil, air, and noise pollutants were measured during September, October, and November 2006. Soil samples were taken from 5 stations and sound measurement was performed in seven stations. The amount of air pollution was also calculated based on consumed fuel per day. Due to the closed cycle of water consumption in the plant, no water pollution was observed. Soil samples were taken from raw and cooked concentrate depots, sewages (tailing dam), plant site, and the area outside the plant site. Sound samples were taken from the administrative building, electrolysis section, boiler and compressor section, solution-making section, green field areas inside and outside the plant site and the road leading to the village near the plant (Jamal Abad village).

The results of the study revealed that the amounts of zinc and cadmium contained in the soil from stations two, three and four (cooked concentrate, tailing dam, and inseparable area of the plant) exceeded the standard range, which resulted from the plant activities. With respect to the measured amounts of gaseous parameters in the air, the results showed that SO2 emitted through the plant output was higher than the level allowed. This is important especially in sintering plants and roasting inside the plant because it could affect the workers' health. The measurement of sound in stations two, three, and four (electrolysis section, boiler and compressor section, and solution-making section) revealed that it was higher than the level allowed in industrial areas. In fact, pollution was evident in the studied stations. The findings also showed that despite preparations anticipated in the plant, the activities occurring at this industrial unit affected negatively the area's physicochemical environment due to soil, air, and noise pollution. However, negative biological effects were not predicted since no specific environmental areas existed within the functional boundaries of the plant. Creating job opportunities and the plant’s profitability are known as the most significant positive effects while immigration and cultural differences caused by the presence of non-native beneficiaries in the social and economic structure of the affected area are known as the most obvious negative effects of this plant on cultural, social and economic environment of the investigated area. 


Key words: Environmental impacts, zinc factory, environmental pollution, environmental, Monitoring and auditing   

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2009, No.39


The effect of urban development on noise pollution in district one of Tehran municipality


Nasser  Moharramnejad1

Mahsa Safaripour1(Corresponding author)

1-Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University Tehran, Iran


The pleasant climate of “district one” --in comparison with the other districts of Tehran municipality-- and the development of urbanization and its related parameters have led to an increase in noise pollution in this area. The present research aimed at studying the effect of urban development factors (population, traffic, residential area density, and green space) on noise pollution in the district. To this end, the LeqA and MaxP of 3 different types of station (residentialˇ commercial and administrative) in various locations were measured. Moreover, the growth trend of the above-mentioned factors from 1993 to 2003 was studied and the following results were obtained:

The first parameter (population growth) has a cumulative and negative effect on noise pollution.

The second factor (traffic) is strongly related to noise pollution, but its effect is not as strong as that of population.

As to the third factor (residential area density), no strong relationship has been found. However, together with other factors, it can affect the growth trend of noise pollution.

The fourth factor (green space) has a reductive effect on noise pollution. Therefore, more efforts should be made to increase the green space of the district.

Finally, some part of noise pollution could be reduced by public training, comprehensive survey on noise pollution, reduction of noise at its sources, and distortion in noise path. The reduction of noise pollution could also be achieved by making policies and passing laws.

Among other thing, the researcher recommends the following: improvement of public green space, banning the purchase of extra residential density, restricting the use of noise making machines and trucks, repairing used and wrecked cars, constructing underground trains, expanding public roads, the use of public transportation, and a better coordination between municipality and other organizations for the reduction of digging activities.


Key words: Noise pollution, urban development, population, green space, traffic, residential areas

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2009, No.39

Biosorption of Pb (II) and Zn (II) by the non-living biomass Phanerochaete chrysosporium


Reza Marandi1

Hamideh Amir Afshar2(Corresponding author)

1-Faculty of Technology, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University
2-Faculty of Chemistry, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University


Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. In this study, the removal of Pb (II) and Zn (II) by dead cells of a lignolytic white-rotfungs, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was investigated. In addition, the effect of pretreatment of P.chrysosporium biomass on biosorption of Pb (II) and Zn (II) was studied. Pretreated P.chrysosoporium has been used for biosorption of metals in this study. Here, the adsorption technique has been done in Batch system. The effects of the initial metal ion concentration, initial pH, stirring speed and contact time on biosorption efficiency were studied. The surface change density of the biosorbents varied with the pH of the medium and the maximum biosorption of heavy metal ions on the biosorbents was obtained between Ph 5 and 6.

The Biosorption of Pb (II) and Zn (II) on the biosorbents increased as the initial concentration of Pb (II) and Zn (II) ions were increased in the medium. Biosorption equilibrium was established about 1 h, the adsorbed heavy metal ion did not significantly change further with time. The maximum heavy metal ions adsorbed was found to be 90 and 63 mg/g dry biomass P.chrysosporium for Pb (II) and Zn (II), respectively.

The results indicated that increasing the temperature led to an increase in the adsorption rate. The experimental adsorption data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The affinity order of heavy metal ions showed Pb (II)>Zn (II). The biomass was regenerated by washing with a 50 mM solution of HCI. The desorption efficiency was as high as 98%. The results suggested that P.chrysosporium could be used as a biosorbent for an efficient removal of heacy metal ions from aqueous solution. 


Key words: Biosorption, adsorption, heavy metals, preteatment, biosorbent, biomass, P.chrysosoporium

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2009, No.39

Economic assessment of domestic solid wastes recycled in district 20 of Tehran municipality


Seyed Masoud Monavari1

Zahra Abedi1

Hanieh Gharehbakhsh 1(Corresponding author)

1-Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University


The present study aims at the economic valuation of recycling domestic solid wastes of district 20 of Tehran municipality.

In this research, after studying the physical analysis of domestic waste materials of district 20 and the plans for separating them from the origin, the income and expenses paid in the region have been considered.

District 20 of Tehran municipality with a population of 800,000 produces more than 175,000 tons of waste materials annually.

The physical analysis of domestic waste materials shows that food wastes forms 73% dried bread 5.3%, paper and carton 5.3%, plastic 4.5%, cloth 3.16%, metal 2.3% and glass 1.48% of the weight of the garbage of Shahr-e Rey. In addition to a decrease of about 570,000,000 RIs in the discharge expenses, recycling of these materials in the year 1384 earned about 1,090,000,000 RIs.

Considering the economic benefits of recycling and the calculation of the net present value of these benefits and its application in determining the ratio of profit to expense and considering that this ratio is greater than one, the recycling of domestic wastes in district 20 is economically justified.


Key words: Recycling, domestic solid waste, district 20 of Tehran, economic benefits, cost-benefit, analysis

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2009, No.39

Bioremediation potential of MTBE in soil and water resources by Lavandula vera


Mohammad Koushafar1(Corresponding author)

Morteza Talebi2

Seyyed Morteza Khaje Bashy1

1-Islamic Azad University Ardestan Branch
2-Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan


Methyl tertia butyl ether (MTBE) is an organic compound with widespread use in unleaded gasoline. Although the use of MTBE had some environmental advantages, it was soon found out that this compound had adverse effect on the environment and human health. Different methods have been introduced for the treatment of MTBE from ground waters. These methods are generally expensive and inefficient. Phytoremediation has been introduced as an effective and inexpensive technology for the removal of MTBE from ground waters and soils. In this study, the ability of Lavandula vera for the removal of MTBE from water has been investigated.

Plants were put into isolated water vessels containing a solution of MTBE with a concentration of 2000 µg/L at greenhouse conditions. The water samples were analyzed for MTBE and transpiration was calculated. The mass balance method was used. MTBE mass reduction of 34.86% was obtained due to the action of this plant and the volume of water transpiration was 43.33 cc in a week. The high amount of MTBE removal by Lavandula vera in a short time indicates the great potential for phytoremediation of MTBE by this plant.


Key words: MTBE, phytoremediation, Lavandula vera

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2009, No.39

The study of the distribution of common otter (Lutra lutra) In Shenrood River using a standard method

(Case study: Deylaman-Dorfak no hunting zone)


Mahmood Karami1

Mohammad Dehdar Dargahi2

Ali Eslami3

Mona Hamzehpour4(Corresponding author)

1-Faculty of Natural resources, Tehran University
2-Faculty of Natural resources, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan
3-Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Tehran University
4-Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran



The common otter is identified based on the observation of its signs and this is called the standard method of identification. The standard method is a systematic sampling method that performs its tasks with maps on a scale of 1/25000 using animal signs such as dung, footprints, etc. In this paper, applying this method, four sites were chosen in a part of Shenrood river-- in Deylaman-Dorfak no hunting zone—as the biggest river in Siahkal, Gilan province. A length of 600 m was searched (300 m upstream, i.e., to the south, and 300 m downstream, i.e., to the north).  

Most of the animal signs were observed in the four sites in seasons with low rainfall. The animal dung was mostly collected in the second site. However, based on the distribution map, the signs of the common otter were observed in all of the four sites.

It seems that a length of 600 meters has been an optimal length for the standard method.


Key words: Standard method, signs of otter, common otter, Deylaman-Dorfak no hunting zone, Shenrood River

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2009, No.39

Urban space designing as an educational device for children

Case study: US – New York

Districts: PS 244 Sound and PS23 Sound


Mamak Nassiri Nasab1


Farah Habib1(Corresponding author)


1-Faculty of Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University


Children constitute approximately 31% of the global population, and in Iran children comprise a population of about 19,130,000 individuals who represent the future human resources of the country.  

Examined here below are the experiences gained in two neighborhoods of the city of New York in the United States of America, known as PS 224 Sound and PS 23 Sound, with regards to the design of public spaces and associated furnishings.

In these two districts of the greater New York Metropolitan area, the attempt has been made to cultivate physical growth and inculcate the learning of the sciences through an experiential scientific approach within the city environment.

Studying the positive aspects of these public spaces and their influence on children, the researchers will arrive at certain conclusions for the design of educational spaces in cities.

Finally, the main conclusion will be presented in the form of a diagram.


Key words:  Children, urban space, district, education, safety

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2009, No.39

Ecopark Design Legislation Development for reviewing design of Pardisan Park in Tehran


Ali Reza.Mikaeili1(Corresponding author)



1-Faculty of Environment, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
2-Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University


An eco-park is an area where recreational activities are done together with the study of environmental issues from different angles.

Eco-parks are designed to provide training for the public and to create appropriate environmental culture.

Environmental problems, population growth, increasing consumption, and production of garbage and sewage have all made the design and the construction of eco-parks quite necessary. So considering the available potentials and the various functions of eco-parks, their establishment is necessary for urban sustainable development. To achieve such development, the following should be considered:

        a) Determining the goals of each project according to the environmental aims

        b) Coordinating activities with one another

        c) Utilizing local, social and managerial facilities and potentials for educational and recreational


Therefore, Pardisan Park in northwest of Tehran was chosen so that the principles for designing an eco-park could be determined. To this end, the existing examples around the world were studied so that the design of the eco-park would be in line with their construction and based on the latest scientific principles.


Key words: Industrial park, eco-park, ecological engineering, principles of  designing, creation