J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2008, No.38

Sustainable urban development With an emphasis on pedestrian movement in Asia


Malihe Ahmadi1(Corresponding author)

Farah Habib

1-Faculty of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University



The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century (A.D.) was one of the turning points in the history of mankind, which brought about many changes and evolutions in all aspects of human life.

The invention of automobile had a strong and undeniable effect on different aspects of life. The increase in transportation speed in urban regions changed the cities drastically and influenced all city functions. In addition, the increase in transportation systems in cities not only leads to unrecoverable energy consumption, but also pollutes the environment and threatens the people living in urban areas. Moreover, the considerable young population in Asian cities is another point justifying the necessity of the present study.

The increasing growth of the population in cities and the vast number of vehicles as well as the increase in the share of roads in the texture of the cities have all brought about a variety of problems for the modern cities, which should be solved by devising new and effective policies.

Attention to humans as the most important factor in the formation of cities and to their basic needs such as movement and health, and enhancement of their social life are the main objectives of this study. To this end, issues such as transportation in Asian cities with an emphasis on the role of walking in cities were studied and new solutions were presented for the improvement of sidewalks.


Key words: Sustainable development, non-vehicle transportation, walking in cities

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2008, No.38

Simulation and energetic modeling for the optimization of energy consumption in rubber industries


Faride Atabi1

Hossein Ghadamian1

 Mohammad Khodadadi1(Corresponding author)

1-Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University



The close relationship between energy and socio-economic development and the anticipation of higher prices for energy in future – due to the limited resources of fossil fuels – have made it necessary to use energy logically to overcome the increasing problems of energy crisis and environmental degradation. Rubber industries with an average consumption of 1.4*1012 kcal of energy per year are among the energy-consuming industries in Iran.  

The potential of energy conservation programs in rubber industries is such that industrial countries like Japan, Canada and England consume energy three times less than Iran due to the optimization of energy consumption. But in spite of the importance of the issue, no complete study has yet been done in our country.

In this study, after the identification of rubber-producing processes, the relationship between energy flows and various production units was specified with the aim of energy conservation in Iran’s rubber industries. A simulated model offering 8 modifications can provide the opportunity to save 46.7*109 kJ of energy per year and to reduce the energy consumption of Kavir Tire Factory by 20%. The value of the saved energy will be 200 million rials per year and – together with the initial cost of 70 million rials for the improvement facilities -- will be returned in a period of 4.5 months.

The value of the saved energy will be much more for the government and will be equal to 1600 million rials per year, to which must be added the benefits obtained from the reduction of environmental pollution. Since there are 10 rubber production factories in Iran and since Kavir Tire is one of the best in terms of energy consumption, a complete program should be initiated to increase the awareness of government officials and industrialists so that they will apply appropriate energy saving processes and technologies for the improvement of energy consumption.


Key words: Rubber, energy conservation, energetic modeling, energy porters

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2008, No.38

Arsenic pollution of the surface water in Koohsorkh region, Kashmar, Iran


Yasaman Babaee1(Corresponding author)

Mohammad Reza Alavi Moghadam1

Fereshte Ghassemzadeh2

Mohammad Hossein Arbab Zavar2

1-Faculty of Environment and Civil Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Tehran, Iran
2-Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran



Arsenic is known as one of the most toxic substances in natural waters. It has fatal effects on human health. Arsenic contamination of water has been reported in many parts of the world. High concentration of arsenic is also reported in some parts of Iran like Chelpo area in Kashmar.  

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentration of arsenic in the surface water of Chelpo River in different seasons of the year. To this end, pH, DO, EC and the hardness of water samples were measured. The results of the study show that Arsenic concentration of Chelpo River is much higher than the national and international standards. The maximum contamination of arsenic (150μgr/lit) was observed in winter. In addition, it was found out that there was no correlation between arsenic concentration on the one hand and pH, DO, EC and the hardness of water samples on the other hand.


Key words: Water pollution, arsenic, Chelpo River, Kashmar

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2008, No.38

Providing practical and managerial procedures to reduce electric energy consumption in buildings

Jafar Nouri1

Abdoreza Karbassi2

Hasti Borgheipour3 (Corresponding Author)

Alireza Taheri4

1-School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2-Faculty of the Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3- Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
4-Petro Paydar Energy Company, Tehran, Iran



Buildings are among the major consumers of energy. Since it is necessary to optimize the consumption of energy and offer useful recommendations in this regard, the present study aimed at providing practical and managerial procedures to reduce the electric energy consumption in a typical educational building. To this end, first all electric energy-consuming equipment was investigated and then the major energy-consuming equipment was chosen for measurement purposes. After the data were collected and analyzed, it was found out that the electric energy was mainly consumed by the lighting system and the electric engines of the central heating system.

Since there was no energy management system in the building, it was concluded that a system needed to be devised for the optimization of energy consumption in such buildings. In fact, energy consumption in public buildings may be reduced to a certain extent by providing a system for collecting and analyzing the necessary data about the energy-consuming equipment using measurement instruments. In this way, energy consumption will be optimized and a lot of energy will be saved.


Key words: Practical and managerial procedures, energy management, improving electric energy consumption, educational buildings

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2008, No.38

Landscape Architecture: An introduction to its approaches and values

Mohsen Faizi1 (Corresponding Author)


Hamid Reza Azemati1


1-School of Architecture & Urban Studies, Iran University of Science and Technology


Cities and residential complexes are the result of human interactions in different areas: social, economic, technological, and the like. Today, with the progress of knowledge, man is manipulating his environment more than ever and is faced with more problems due to the destruction of natural resources. Therefore, different professions are emerging to solve these various problems.

Landscape Architecture is one of these professions which, despite having a long history in our life, has only recently been considered as an independent academic major, especially in Iran.

Having its root in nature and using its own potentials, this specialty can have an important role in different aspects of life, such as social and ecologic issues. Although Iran has been one of the pioneers of this field, it has just recently begun to accept students for a master’s degree in landscape architecture. 

Using the existing texts, documents, and comments, and employing the comparative method, the present study aims at clarifying the real meaning of landscape architecture to prove the necessity of interaction between this and other related fields so that the ground for further researches could be prepared and the existing problems would be solved. 


Key­ words: Landscape architecture, educational approach, ecology, community, delight

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2008, No.38

The role of nanotechnology in the reduction of environmental contaminations of the construction industry


Mahnaz Mahmoudi1(Corresponding author)

Mohammad Hadi Behboudi1

Seyede Hadiseh Sedigh1


1-Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University



Today, we benefit from different technologies to provide welfare and to economize, especially in energy resources. Nanotechnology is the science of atom to atom structure of new materials with specified characteristics. It is yet at the beginning of its way in the world, and a very bright future is predicted for it. By controlling materials at a molecular scale, this science promises to uncover the nature’s secrets in different fields.

One of the numerous uses of this technology is its application in producing, transmitting, consuming, and reserving energy quite efficiently. Application of nanotechnology for the production of suitable construction materials with desirable characteristics for different parts of the buildings and installations can play a very important role -- directly or indirectly – in reducing the energy consumption.

The concept of an architecture coordinated with the nature is not a new thought. Iran’s traditional architecture has offered logical and suitable solutions for providing the conditions needed for a better life. The present study is done in the following fields:

1-      Optimizing the energy consumption in buildings

2-      Reducing the pollution in residential units

3-      Producing construction materials which can be recycled

This is a library research with a descriptive-analytical method. Part of this study is done using laboratory cases.



Key­ words: Nanotechnology, environmental contaminations, Titanium Oxide, nano silice, nano aluminum

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2008, No.38

Recycling the slag obtained from the application of powder In submerge arc welding (SAW)


Kaveh Arzani1(Corresponding author)


Amir Hossein Haghighati2

Ali Reza Mirzahosseini3

1-Faculty of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University
2-Laboratory Complex, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University
3-Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University



Besides possessing proper technical properties, the materials used by modern technology should be environment friendly and economical. The man of the modern age thinks of and makes research into the discovery of suitable methods for recycling a major part of the industrial wastes instead of disposing of them into oceans or accumulating them on the uninhabited deserts of the third world countries. SAW wastes are also considered as a class of environmental pollutants.
The present research aims at finding a method for recycling such wastes by making use of phases assessment systems (X-ray diffractometery XRD),  chemical composition assessment systems (X-ray fluorescence XRF), phases type and form assessment system (Scanning electro microscope SEM), and carbon and sulphur value assessment system (Strolein system) and by using separation, formulation, and ceramic sintering. The findings of the study showed that the slag from SAW process might be recycled from the production of the SAW used in low-carbon steel (st37) welding by separating the iron particles added to the powder composition.


Key words: Recycling, submerge arc welding, submerge arc welding wastes, scanning electro microscope

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2008, No.38

The effect of nitrogenous compounds on the production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by activated sludge


Nader Mokhtarani1 (Corresponding author)


Hossein Ganjidust1

Manijhe Khaleghi Sarnamy2

Mahdi Borgheie3

1-Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modarres University
2-Jahesh Kimia Company, No. 26, Sadeghi St., Azadi Ave
3-Biochem. and Env. Research Center, Sharif University of Technology



PHAS are known to be temporarily stored by microorganisms in activated sludge, especially in anaerobic-aerobic processes. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of nitrogenous compounds in the substrate of PHAs production reactor (PPR) on the production of PHAs using activated sludge.

Ammonia, peptone and yeast extract were used as nitrogenous compounds in this study. The results showed that they did not depress the production of PHAs and that these compounds increased the acetate uptake rate of the system: the effect of yeast extract was stronger than that of peptone and the effect of peptone was stronger than that of ammonia. Yeast extract in the substrate of PPR resulted in an increase of 50% of the acetate uptake rate of the activated sludge.

Finally, the effect of C/N in the supernatant of PHAs production reactor was studied. The results revealed that PHAs contents of MLSS reached the maximum using C/N of 25 (gr/gr). The findings also showed that the wastewater containing nitrogenous compounds could be used as carbon sources for PHAs production.


Key words: Activated sludge; anaerobic-aerobic treatment; biodegradable polymers; C/N, PHAs, SBR

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2008, No.38

Economic analysis of Haraz environmental water requirement in Dasht Haraz irrigation and drainage project

(Mazandaran Province)


Hasan Karimzadegan1

Reza Arjmandi2

Seyed Masoud Monavari2

Shohreh Naiji2) Corresponding author)

1-Faculty of Natural Resources, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University
2-Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University


Many agricultural and urban areas need to get water from the neighboring regions. To provide water in this way, we need a system of water reservoirs and canals. For instance, we construct dams to control floods, reform or fill out wetlands, and change the path of rivers. Nowadays, the water resources development has faced many challenges, and the time for executing great water projects in which exact environmental considerations are not observed is over. At present, solving the development problems requires the consideration of numerous groups having much different needs and interests, from the farmers who consider water development as a necessity for their existence to groups who are in search of preserving the wildlife and seek the protection of natural regions. The fact that the viewpoints of different groups related to water issues should be taken into account in plans and projects is a positive point, especially for the environment.

Due to the importance of water and environmental flows and the role they play in preserving natural resources, the present case study tries to estimate the environmental water requirement of Haraz River located in Dasht Haraz, Mazandaran Province. Through a hydrologic method called 10% of Q90, the environmental need of Haraz River was estimated to be 53 million cubic meters per year. Then, the value of such an amount of water in terms of the agronomic production in Dasht Haraz was calculated to be 75,843 million rials. Although the mentioned figure is considerably high, the micro and macro objectives of providing the environmental water requirements in this and other areas have a much higher value in the long run. Therefore, it is necessary to allocate enough water to initiate the environmental flow in water resources projects which aim at preserving natural resources, bringing welfare to human societies, and establishing a sustainable development in general.


Key words: Water allocation, environmental flow, environmental flow methodology, ecological and economic values

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2008, No.38

Relationship between sustainable development and climatic design of buildings in dry cold regions (case study: Tabriz)


Shahriar Shaghaghi1

Majid Mofidi2) Corresponding author)


1-Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University
2-Iran University of Science and Technology


The issue of sustainable development has been vastly debated in different sciences including architecture and urbanism for some decades. It is stemmed from the environmental crises and lavished consumption of fossil-based energies in the world. Issues such as global warming, growing increase of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere that is the cause of global warming itself, as well as water, air and soil pollution have all led to activities against environmental destruction and illogical consumption of fossil-based energies. Therefore, the suitable design of buildings and the fabric of cities based on their climatic situation have turned into the main subjects at the global conferences and seminars on architecture and urbanism.

Due to the extended areas of dry cold climate in the northern part of the earth including Iran, paying attention to the proper design of constructions and the fabric of dry cold cities which are the main consumers of fossil-based energies in the world can reduce the consumption of such energies and can, therefore, decrease the global pollution.

The main objective of this article is to study the climatic situation of the dry cold region in Iran, especially in the city of Tabriz, as one of the biggest cities in this region. The article also studies the approaches to the proper design of constructions and the fabric of cities suited to this climate. This can help achieve the objectives and goals of sustainable development. The present study has made use of library and field studies. It is hoped that this study can help reduce the consumption of fossil-based energies.  


Key words: Climate, sustainable development, compact fabric, architecture of constructions, dry cold region

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2008, No.38

Structural sustainability in Iranian traditional cities: Coherence and complexity in urban designing

(Fractal structure)


Nahid Mohajeri1

1-Faculty of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University


When we look at traditional cities, we feel they are living things. This feeling is not something vague. Rather, it is an exact conception of special structural quality which these cities possess. But many of our cities today lack such a quality. In her book, The death and life of great American Cities, Jane Jacobs talks about a very necessary quality which is common to all living cities; i. e., an organized complexity. Urban coherence and complexity are the most important structural qualities of cities, which are studied in the present article with regard to the old cities’ textures. These structures are connected to each other with a strong link at every level of magnification and also at all levels according to a suitable design (Fractal structure). However, the textures of our contemporary cities lack such a sustainable quality and, therefore, are incapable of creating urban coherence. Not only are limited scales used in these cities, but they are also disconnected to each other.

In this paper, the researcher has tried to provide clear definitions for urban complexity and coherence as well as the scientific principles governing them. Besides, this study aimed at extracting the principles and criteria pertaining to coherence and sustainability in ancient cities. 


Key words: Complexity, coherence, Fractal structure