J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36 Special

Environmental management of aquaculture in the area of Sarab Gerdu 

Abdolreza Karbassi

Faculty of Environment, Tehran University

Masoud Monavari*

Roxana Moogouei*(Corresponding Author)

*Faculty of Energy and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University 


In this paper, different environmental aspects of aquaculture by raceways in the area of Sarab Gerdu and its impacts on surface waters were studied. First, the physicochemical characteristics of water used in rainbow trout culture and the variation of these parameters were determined. The parameters include temperature, pH, alkalinity, total hardness, ammonia, nitrogen, phosphorous, EC, TDS, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chlorine, boron and fluoride. Then, their changes and the correlation coefficients among them were investigated and the measured values were compared with aquaculture standards and the standards of water used in agriculture. After that, the effective factors in optimal water management for aquaculture practice such as daily cleaning of raceways, ways of increasing the oxygen concentration, and micronutrients were identified. Finally, appropriate methods for wastewater treatment and for diminishing the adverse environmental impacts were introduced.  


Key Words: Aquaculture, environmental, water, temperature, pollution, trout. 

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36 Specail

Identification and estimation of Namrud River's fisher above the Tehran Gezel Aquaculture form by an Electro shocker


Mohammad Karim Jazebizadeh

Fishery Department, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University

Ali Atef Yekta (Corresponding Author)

Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, Tehran North Branch , Islamic Azad University



In this study, bassed on marine diversities of Namroud river, an electroshoker was used to identify and estimate the fish population in the part of the river above Tehran Gezel aquaculture form. Totally, 105 species were captured and identified. The results suggested four following species from all obtained speciments:

Alburnoides bipunctatus and Capoeta damascina from Family Cyprinidae, Nemacheilus bergianus from family Balitoridae and Oncorhynchus mykiss from family Salmonidae.

To estimate the number of fishes, number of each species was detected and then percent of them was calculated. In addition, according to obtained species and benthic organisms, water velocity and other factors, we realized, this part of river according Holik-Henzel classification (1972) belong to mountain Zone.

Generally, this river has less species variation in comparison with other rivers However in this zone has got well diversity.


Key words: Fish, identification, population estimation, Namrud River, Tehran Province.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36 Specail

Study of sequencing of the mtDNA Persian gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) in D-LOOP region: a population approach

Bahareh Aeini*(Corresponding Author)

Hamid Farahmand*

Faculty of Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

Mahmood  Karami

Faculty of Natural Resources, Tehran University 



Persian gazelle (Gazelle subgutturosa) is one of the most important species with its wide distribution in Iran and throughout the world. The greatest number of this species in Iran is in Sohrain plain in Sorkhabad protected region, Zanjan province. According to the latest estimates in recent years, the number of these gazelles is increasing. Considering the significance of this species in the region and the fact that no genetic studies have been conducted on the species yet to determine its status, the tissue samples of this species were collected for such genetic investigations. Since the species was not hunted in 2005, 54 samples of the species hunted in 2002 were used. After taking the samples, their sequence was determined through PCR-Sequencing technique in D-LOOP area.

            The results revealed 6 haplotypes, among which haplotype type 1 with 72 percent had the highest frequency in the population of gazelles. Based on the results, the diversity rate of haplotypes in the population of gazelles of Sohrain region was estimated to be 0.46. The figure was estimated to be 0.84 for nucleotides. The amount of polymorphism of the same population was calculated, as well. The estimates indicate a low genetic variety in this species. They also indicate that the population of Persian gazelles is endangered by their genetic depletion 


Key Words: Persian gazelle, polymorphism, mtDNA genome, D-LOOP region, PCR technique.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36 Specail

The effects of trichlorfon with different concentrations on the survival of larvae and fry of Caspian Kutum, Rutilus Frisii Kutum Kamensky 1901



Nasrin Choobkar (Corresponding Author)

Faculty of Technical and Engineering, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University

Hossein Emadi

Faculty of Marine Science and Tecnic, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University

Mohammad Hossein Tlooei Gilani

Shahid Dr.Beheshti Sturgeons Rearing and Propagation Center


Trichlorfon is an organophophate pesticide. In concentrations of 0/5 to 1 ppm, it is used in the selective growth of zooplanktons such as rotifera which is the favorite food of larvae of kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum kamensky 1901. It is used to destroy rotifera’s enemies such as cyclopses. Higher concentrations are sometimes used by mismanagement. Three- to seven-day-old larvae of kutum are released into the pool 24 to 48 hours after spraying the toxin. The study aims to investigate the effects of trichlorfon toxin with concentrations of  0 (control treatment), 0.5,  1,  2,  3,  4,  5 and 10 ppm and also the effects of fish larvae release at different times after spraying the toxin (0, 24, 48 and 72 hours) on the survival of  the larvae and fry of  kutum. Vase incubators were used in this study and 3-day-old larvae were introduced into the incubators in equal numbers. The experiment was conducted without the use of flowing water. After 2 days, the fish fry were transferred into net cages in separate groups. The fry were placed in separate net compartments in earth ponds to grow. The larvae were counted in net cages at the end of the period. The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SAS statistical software. The statistical results showed that the treatments having toxin with lower concentrations had higher survival rates than the treatments having toxin with higher concentrations. The latter was significant only in the introduction of larvae in 24 hours after the application of the toxin. Lower concentrations of the toxin showed better survival at the end of the experiment; however, no significant statistical difference was observed. It is not possible to give the exact time for the introduction of larvae into the ponds after toxin treatment (24, 48 and 72 hours) because no significant difference was observed for the survival rate and it is not clear which duration can lead to better survival. Therefore, if the toxin is added and left for 24 hours or more and then the larvae are introduced, it does not affect the survival rate because the lethal effects of the toxin are removed after such time intervals (24, 48, 72 hours) because this toxin  breaks down quickly. The effects of the toxin are more lethal when the larvae are released into the pond immediately after spraying the toxin (0 hours). 

Key Words: Rutilus frissi Kutum, Caspian Sea, toxin, trichlorfon, concentration, survival, ime.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36 Specail

Determination of LC50 and tissue lesions caused by aluminum sulfate at acidic pH on gills of roach (Rutilus rutilus)


Hamideh Gerve'ei*(Corresponding Author)

Shahla Jamili

Iranian Fishery's Research Organization

Ali Mashinchian*

Department of Marine Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

Mina Rostami

Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Tehran University



Aluminum sulfate dissolves faster at acidic pH, and therefore, causes toxicity by leaving silts in gills of fishes.     

            The aim of this study is to determine the LC50 of aluminum sulfate as a pollutant in acidic pH within 96 hours and its acute toxicity effect on gill tissues of fingerling roach.

            The fish samples were obtained from “Reproduction Center of Sijval” and transferred alive to the laboratory. The experiments were conducted based on OECD guideline and in a static bioassay system in the laboratory during 96 hours and at a pH of 4.6. Each treatment was conducted twice. Meanwhile, the lesions of gill tissues caused by the exposure to aluminum sulfate at a pH of 5 were assessed by a light microscope. Then, the correlation coefficient equation of the statistical tests was done by regression analysis.

            LC50 values of aluminum sulfate at this acidic pH during 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were on average 1.76, 1.29, 0.84 and 0.725 mg/L, respectively.

            The results showed that physicochemical factors of water and time were important in the determination of LC50: the more the exposure time, the less the LC50.

            The study of gill lesions revealed certain differences in gill tissues of the fishes exposed to several concentrations of aluminum sulfate and acidic pH. The control-group gills were safe at a pH of 7, but had mild histopaths and were without aneurism at a pH of 5. In the treatment gills, the pathological changes included hypertrophy, hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, mucous cell proliferation and their secretion, hemorrhage, anemia, aneurysm, lamellar fusion, cellular necrosis and so on.

            With an increase in aluminum concentration in water and in the exposure time (till 96 hours), more tissue legions are observed.  


Key Words: Rutilus rutilus, LC50,  aluminum sulfate, acute toxicity, histopathology

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36 Specail

Density and diversity of Gastropods of intertidal rocky shore in the south of Gheshm Island


Goli Ghiasnejhad*(Corresponding Author)

Mohammad Reza Fatemi*

Department of Marine Biology, Science and Research, Islamic Azad University

Arash Javanshir Khoei

Faculty of Environment, Tehran. University, Department of Fisheries and Environment

Alireza Sari

Faculty of zoology, Tehran University Department of biology



The present study was conducted at five rocky-bed stations during one year (summer 2005- spring 2006). The sampling was done randomly with quadrate at the maximum ebb time. The location of each station was determined using GPS. Each station was divided into three transects, each with three high, mid, and low tide zones. The sampling was repeated three times. Therefore, the quadrate was thrown twenty-seven times.

In total, twenty-nine species of gastropods including 20 genera and 16 families were found and studied using Shannon variation index. The seasonal density reaches its highest value in autumn, which can be due to the moderate temperature. It can be a proof of the importance of temperature in ecological cycles. A high temperature can desiccate the tidal zones and reduce the variety of species. Being the most untouched one and having a moderate slope which helps feed the zone better, station 5 had the highest density. Planaxis sulcatus, Cerithiam coeruleam and Thais savignyi had the highest densities with 4, 3.5 and 2 per square meter, respectively, while Clypeomorus biifascatus persicus and Cymatium trilineatum had the lowest densities. Among all the three zones, the middle one had the highest density and the down stream one the lowest.  This could be interpreted by the high density of algae in the middle zone.


Key Words: Gastropod, intertidal rocky shore, Persian Gulf.  

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36 Specail

The effect of paraquat herbicide on testis histology and spermatogenesis of Balb/c mice  

Vahid Hemayatkhah Jahromi*(Corresponding Author)

Kazem Parivar*

*Biology Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

Aminallah Bahaodini

Biology Department, Shiraz University

Farshid Kafilzadeh

Biology Department, Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad University



In this research, the effect of paraquat with concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg b.w. on the spermatogenesis of Balb/c mice was studied. The male mice from 10 weeks of age received paraquat for two weeks intraperitoneally. After one week from the last injection, the animals were weighed. Also, the weight and the volume of their testes were measursed. Moreover, all changes inside seminiferous tubules including the number of sertoli cells, stem cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, sperm and Leydig cells were calculated.

The results showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in all of the above-mentioned cells and the fertility of the mice having received paraquat compared with those in the control group. Therefore, it is suggested that paraquat may decrease germ cells inside seminiferous tubules of Balb/c mice. 


Key Words: Paraquat, spermatogenesis, testis, fertility, seminiferous tubule, mice.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36 Specail

Rocky shore macrobenthos of the Hormuz Island: analysis of distribution patterns (zonation)


Dara Mirzabagheri٭ (Corresponding Author)

dara_1359 @ yahoo.com

Marine Biology Msc. Young Researchers Club, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University

Seyyed Mohammad Bagher Nabavi*

Alireza Mehvari

Persian Gulf and Oman Sea Marine Environment Research Center, Hormuz Island

Kambiz Karami*

*Faculty of Marine Sciences, Khorramshahr University of Marine Sciences and Technology




          A general description of rocky shore distribution patterns (zonation) along the whole Hormuz Island coast is given to provide the context for comparisons of distribution patterns of intertidal organisms. In order to test if there was any variation in species distribution and abundance from upper to lower intertidal zones (littoral zone) along the entire rocky shore of the Hormuz Island, three main regions were studied (west, south, and south-east) and 3 transects were sampled in each region. In each of the 9 transects, the shore was leveled and a general qualitative description was made, which also aided stratification of subsequent quantitative sampling. An upper zone (supralittoral fringe) is characterized by the presence of    Saccostrea cucullata and Balanus amphitrite found on most of the shores along the Hormuz Island coast. The distribution patterns observed on the lower shore (Infralittoral fringe) showed a similarity between the rocky shores located in the Hormuz Island, basically dominated by Palythoa sp. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tucky Test revealed clear differences in the structure of the upper to lower intertidal zone. Simpson and Shannon indexes revealed the species which contributed to the separation of shore levels and regions. The study also provided important information on the geographical increase in the frequency of species from upper to lower intertidal zones. 

Key Words: Distribution patterns, rocky shore, intertidal zone, Hormuz Island.   

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36 Specail

Determining the levels of 17-αhydroxy progesterone hormone and its relationship with some biological indexes in female brood kutum roaches (Rutilus frisii kutum) in west of Gilan


Shohreh Najafipour* (Corresponding Author)

Shohreh Najafipour@yahoo.com

Mahmood Bahmani**

**International Research Institute of Sturgeon Fishes, Rasht

Shahrbanoo Oryan***

***Faculty of Science, Teacher Training University

Parisa Nejatkhah*

*Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University



This study was designed to investigate the fluctuations of 17-hydroxy progesterone hormone levels and compare its correlation with a number of bio-indicators. To this end, 41 female brood fishes of Rutilus frisii kutum including 31 brood fishes caught from the sea in Mojgol Sibli area of Astara and 10 brood fishes caught from Chalvand Riover in Astara within a period of two months in 2004.

            The findings indicated a significant increase (p<0.05) in the levels of this hormone in the fishes caught from the river (39.19ng/ml34.63) compared with those caught from the sea (4.75ng/ml3.6).

The increase of 17-hydroxy progesterone hormone levels of female brood fishes caught in the river accounts for the role this hormone plays in making oocytes reach their final maturity so that a significant correlation (p<0.05) was observed between 17-- hydroxy progesterone hormone levels and the diameters of eggs in female brood fishes.  The results show the diameters of eggs in the female brood fishes caught in the river (2.14mm0.35) were more than those caught in the sea (1.55mm0.11). The liver weight represents a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the female brood fishes caught in the river (11.25gr4.45) compared with those caught in the sea (14.05gr3.6), and there was a significant correlation (p<0.01) between 17-αhydroxy progesterone hormone levels and liver weight. Therefore, the results obtained indicate that hormone 17-hydroxy progesterone, as well as egg diameter and liver weight are considered as suitable physiological indexes of reproduction in female brood kutum roach (Rutilus frisii Kutum) caught both in sea and river. 


Key Words: Kutum roach, Caspian Sea, Rutilus frisii Kutum, 17-hydroxyl, progestrone, diameter of egg, liver, west of Gilan province. 

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36 Specail

Determination of organophosphorus insecticides (Malathion and Diazinon) residue in drinking water


Mansoreh Shayeghi* (Corresponding Author)

Mahdi Khoobdel**

**Military Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences

Abdolkhalegh Ghomeisi*

Majid Selseleh***

***Water Resources Research Center, Ministry of Power

Mandana Abolhasani*

Hassan Nasirian*

*School of Public Health and Health Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences



            Each year, thousands of tons of insecticides are used in the fields of agriculture and health to combat pests and disease-transmitting arthropods. A considerable amount of these toxic insecticides enters the human environment and the food cycle, which can be very dangerous and have negative long-term effects.

            In this study, the amount and origin of the pollution with malathion and diazinon of Karaj River and Amir Kabir dam – as Tehran’s most important drinking water supply -- have been assessed by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) technique.

            This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. After initial assessments, four stations were selected for water sampling. In all stations, sampling was done one day, one week, two weeks, one month, two months, and three months after spraying the insecticide. Separation of organophosphorus insecticides from water samples was done by acetone and methylen chloride solvents, using decanter. Then, the residues of malathion and diazinon insecticides were determined using HPTLC technique.

            The results of the study show that the residues of malathion and diazinon in water decrease as the distance and time of spraying increases. The residues of malathion and diazinon insecticides at stations 1 and 2, which were close to spraying places, 1-2 months after spraying were more than the permitted limits. But at the final stations (3 and 4), malathion and diazinon were detectable just 1 day and 1 month after spraying, respectively.

            Tehran’s drinking water is unlikely to be polluted with these two insecticides; rather, the most adverse effect can be seen in the area of spraying. Therefore, the people in the area close to Karaj River are threatened by chronic toxicity with malathion and diazinon through consuming polluted water and agricultural products. 


Key Words: Malathion, Diazinon, insecticides, residues, organophosphorus, thin-layer chromatography, Amir Kabir dam.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36 Specail

Mercury concentration in fishermen’s hair and fishes in the south of the Caspian Sea: Levels, Specific Accumulation and Risk Assessment

Ghasem Zolfaghari*(Corresponding Author)

Abbas Esmaeili Sari*

Seyed Mahmood Ghasempouri*

*Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University



            Mercury (Hg) concentration in fishermen’s hair and fish samples in the south of the Caspian Sea (Anzali, Nour, Rostamroud and Sorkhroud) were determined to assess the status of contamination in Iranian fishermen and the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Hair and fish samples were collected from December to July, 2006. Mercury concentrations in fishermen ranged from 0.44 to 19 ìg/g dry wt. No samples contained Hg levels exceeding the NOAEL (no observed adverse effects level) of WHO (50 ìg/g). The mean of hair mercury concentration was below the threshold level of WHO (5ìg/g) and above the WHO normal level (2ìg/g). A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between the number of fish meals per month and Hg levels in fishermen. Mercury concentration in the muscles of the fishes ranged from 0.003 to 0.58 ìg/g dry wt. The Hg concentration in the hair of an Iranian fisherman was calculated using regression equation and on the basis of the fish consumption rate. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption (7.6 ìg/daily).

            Six samples of fish including zahrte, caspian roach, mullet, kutum roach, crucian carp, and pike exceeded the guidelines of US EPA and one sample of pike exceeded the guidelines of the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives (JECFA), which indicates that some of the fish specimens examined were hazardous for consumption on the ingestion rate of 30 g/daily.

            It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Iranian fishermen. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals, which could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Iranian fishermen. 


Key Words: Mercury, hair, Iranian fishermen, fish, contamination. 

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36 Specail

The isolation of an extremely double-resistant bacterium with specific application in bioremediation against toxic oxyanion of tellurite and chromate existing in industry wastes: KWT2


Mohammad Reza Zolfaghary*(Corresponding Author)

*Faculty of Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

Feridoon Malekzadeh**

Mohammad Ali Amoozegar**

**Faculty of Sciences, Tehran University

Mohammad Reza Razavi***

***Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran



Toxic oxyanions of tellurite and chromate are abundantly found in industry wastes of tannery, electroplating, textile and the like. With high solubility, they penetrate the environment and underground waters, and have destructive effects on DNA and thiol groups of enzymes. In addition, they have harmful effects on health through liver necrosis, cancer, and so forth. Microorganisms and specifically bacteria play a significant role in metal bioremediation, and are used in biotechnology.

The purpose of the present study was to isolate the resistant bacteria from industry wastes, to determine MIC, and to examine the bioreduction in strain with high MIC. Among the 108 strains isolated from the industry wastes in Iran, a gram-positive coccus designated as strain KWT2 showed a high capacity in the removal of toxic oxyanions of tellurite and chromate in a wide range of culture medium factors including pH (5.5-10.5), temperature (25-40°C), agitation (50-100-150-200 rpm) and at different concentrations of K2TeO3 and K2CrO4 (0.04-1mM) under aerobic conditions. Maximum tellurite removal was obtained at a pH of 7.5, a temperature of 35°C, and an agitation of 150 rpm. Maximum chromate removal, however, was obtained at a pH of 8, a temperature of 35°C, and an agitation of 100 rpm. Morphological, physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rDNA sequence comparison indicated that KWT2 strain was a member of the genus Micrococcaceae. With the use of spectrophotometric technique with diethyldithiocarbamate (λmax 340) and diphenylcarbazide (λmax 540) agents, the bacterium showed maximum elimination in the least amount of time in comparison with other bacteria; a finding which was confirmed by the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique and atomic absorption spectroscopy. At international circles, therefore, KWT2 strain could be introduced as an acceptable candidate for the elimination of metals.


Key words: bioremediation, chromate reduction, tellurite reduction, bacterial metal resistance, industrial effluent