J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36

Editorial Note




The application of nanotechnology in the protection of environment

Due to the importance of environmental protection and for the attainment of sustainable development, application of new technologies has attracted the attention of scientists in most countries.

In recent years, basic researches in the field of nanotechnology have been very successful, and their application to the protection of the environment has been reported as quite effective.

Today, carbon nanopipes which are among the first scientific findings in the field of nanotechnology have a wide application in the protection of the environment. Fuel additives, production of solar cells, economical hydrogen fuel, electricity storage, and the like can be referred to in this regard. Nano-particle additives have proved to be capable of increasing the fuel efficiency of diesel engines as much as 5 per cent and therefore decreasing the spread of greenhouse gases as much as millions of tons. Also, with the decrease in the production expense of solar cells by nanotechnology, the spread of greenhouse gases decreases.

Hydrogen-driven vehicles can remove the spread of all harmful pollutants; nanostructures such as carbon nanopipes, fullerenes, have a potential capacity to store hydrogen in their structures. Nanocatalysts can improve the performance of fuel batteries and reduce the spread of greenhouse gases. Nanotechnology can help increase the storage capacity of batteries and improve their life.

Provision of healthy potable water and filtration of wastewater are one of the environmental problems in the years to come. Water purification and desalinization is a field considered by scientists for the protection of the environment. With the help of nanotechnology, machines have been made for desalinizing the sea water with an efficacy/efficiency 10 times more than reverse osmosis machines and 100 times more than distillation. This is a very economical process in terms of fuel consumption because certain electrodes with a very large area have been produced which can conduct electricity by putting carbon nanopipes side by side and other designing innovations.  

The application of nanotechnology can improve agriculture and increase agricultural products. Production of chemical substances which are compatible with the environment and are designed in a molecular way to nourish the plants and/or protect them against pests, genetic enhancement of the structure of the living things, and transmission of drugs and genes to animals all provide the conditions for their compatibility with drought and salinity.

Composites made on the nano scale with their special morphology and surface features are a new class of materials with unique properties. The reaction between an organic substance such as protein, pitid or lipid and inorganic substance like calcium carbonate can result in a substance with an added rigidity. Such compounds are a suitable substitute for the production of plastic bottles of beverages because they can be absorbed in the nature and a variety of them can be used for packaging the foodstuff.

Considering the above-mentioned points, the researchers interested in the preservation of the environment are recommended to pay more attention to this new technology and do more studies in this regard so that our country like others can benefit from the results for the protection of the environment.


                                                                                                    Faramarz Moattar  

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36

Feasibility of MTBE absorption from groundwater by the use of modified clays

Saeed Gitipour

Emad Abolfazlzadeh* (Corresponding Author)

Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran


Saeed Givehchi

University of Tehran


Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) is added to gasoline to increase its octane number and efficiency. The U.S. EPA has categorized this compound as a hazardous material with high cancer risk to human health. RCRA has also listed MTBE as a dangerous material.

The main source of soil contamination by MTBE in the environment occurs through its production and leaching from USTs. Modified clays are a type of bentonite clays that have been tailored structurally to absorb hydrocarbons. In this study, free swell test and absorption analysis were carried out to investigate the efficiency of modified clays in removing MTBE from liquid wastes. The results of the study showed that the volume of the clays increased from 2 cm3 to 11.95 cm3 (a 497% increase). There was also a noticeable decrease in MTBE concentration for all the absorption isotherm samples due to the removal of MTBE from liquid solutions, thus denoting the efficiency of modified clays in absorbing this compound.

Key words: MTBE, groundwater, modified clay, absorption

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36

Bioassay on accumulation amount of tributyltin chloride in Scat fish (Scatophagus argus)

Khashayar Badii*

Farrokh Legha Amini**/* (Corresponding Author)

Gholam Reza Nabi Bidhendi***

***Faculty of Environment, Tehran University

Parvin Farshchi**

**Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

Noushin Rastkari****

****Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Mehrnoosh Gerayeshnejad *

* Research Institute for Colorants, Paints and Coatings (ICPC), Tehran, Iran


Application of organotin compounds are limited by international regulations. Unfortunately, in spite of these international regulations, they have been used in Iran unofficially. The extensive application of these compounds has caused negative environmental effects on aquatic organisms and marine ecosystem. Therefore, it is very important to determine their quantity in marine ecosystem. 

In this research, a fish species native to the Persian Gulf, Scatophagus argus, was used to determine the amount of accumulation and accumulation threshold of tributyltin chloride through food. The food, contained tributyltin chloride with 4 different concentrations (0.0, 0.00264, 0.0264 and 0.0528 μgml-1), was given to the fish throughout the period of experiment. Three fish were taken after 7, 14, 21 days of experiment. Tributyltin chloride was detected by GC-ECD in 4 steps. These steps were extraction, clean-up, concentration and detection. During the 21 days of experiment, different amounts of accumulation were observed at aquarium bioassay at different sampling times. Also, the accumulation threshold of this compound (0.0264 μgml-1) was determined by GC-ECD system with the detection limit of 0.1 ngg-1.

Key words: Tributyltin chloride, bioaccumulation, accumulation threshold, Scat fish, Persian Gulf

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36

Decolorization of Reactive Black 5 by isolated bacterial strains from textile effluents in Tehran

Ashrafossadat Nouhi

Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

Mozhgan Emtiazjoo

Faculty of Marine Sciences, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University

Negar Ordouzadeh (Corresponding Author)

Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University


Synthetic dyes are among the substances that pollute the ecosystems such as the soil, surface water, and underground water, and affect living organisms when industrial effluents are released in the environment. The most common synthetic dyes are Azo dyes, among which are the reactive dyes that can cause a lot of problems due to their high solubility in water and low degradability.

In this study, one gram negative bacilli (Shewanella putrefaciens) with a high capacity in decolorization of azoic dyes, especially reactive black 5, is isolated from among 15 microbial strains in Tehran textile effluents.

The results of the study showed that, in the presence of external energy and carbon source, this strain could decolorize the dye in a shorter period of time. An 18-20h pure culture of Shewanella putrefaciens decolorized more than 80% of the dye during 12 hours under aerobic conditions in broth and the figure reached 100% after 24 hours. Decolorization in Saline Basal Medium during 48 h was 85%, when the dye was regarded as the sole source of carbon and energy. The conditions for the gram negative bacilli (Shewanella putrefaciens) that had the best effect on decolorization were as follows: a temperature of 30˚C, the pH of 6-6.5, 150 rpm shaker speed, and 200 ppm (mg/l) concentration of dye. Decolorization took place better in the presence of yeast extract as nitrogen source and sucrose as carbon source. Moreover, the culture showed a better decolorization activity in the logarithmic phase of growth.

Since the Shewanella putrefaciens do its decolorization activity in a short period of time even in an autotrophic pathway, it is thus this strain that can have a valuable role in biodegradation of dye compounds in textile effluents.

Key words: Reactive Black 5 dye, Shewanella putrefaciens strain, biodegradation, decolorization .

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36

Comparison between Igeo and EF indexes for estimating environmental pollution intensity of Shirood River

 to maintain standards of sustainable development

Marjaneh Kharrat Sadeghi(Corresponding Author)

Faculty of Natural Resources, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University

marjanehsadeghi @ yahoo.com

Abdolreza Karbassi

Faculty of Environment, Tehran University


This research aimed at investigating the intensity of the mineral pollution of Shirood River located in the west of Mazandaran Province (7 Kilometers from Tonekabon) through environmental geochemical studies and by compiling pollution intensity indexes for the maintenance of sustainable development. To this end, seven sediment samples were collected from different parts of the river and the total concentration of such elements as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), plumb (Pb), vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) was measured by atomic absorption. To estimate the pollution intensity in the mentioned river, the researchers used the geochemical index (Igeo) and the enrichment factor (EF), compared the two indexes, quantified the EF index, and equated it with Igeo.

The results of the study show that the pollution intensity of the mentioned elements in two stations – mouth of the river and Soleiman Abad (up river) – are as follows: the amounts of Iron and manganese are normal, which indicates too weak an absorption (without pollution) in the environment; vanadium and nickel are in the weak absorption class (without pollution to very slight pollution); elements such as copper, zinc, and plumb are in the medium absorption class (very slight pollution to slight pollution) and intensive absorption class (much pollution to severe pollution). Therefore, the results of the study also show that by combining the above-mentioned indexes, it is possible to develop a sustainable development index for the recognition of environmental pollutions.

Key words: pollution intensity, river, geochemical index, enrichment factor, sustainable   development

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36

Elimination of heavy metals from wastewater by reusing the waste:  case study (cadmium salts by used spent

 soils that used in vegetable oil industries)

Afshin Shokati*(Corresponding Author)

 Mahmood Shariat*

Nematollah Jaafarzadeh**

**Faculty of Health, Ahwaz University of Medical Sciences

Ramin Nabizadeh*

*School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences



Due to the toxicity of cadmium and its bioaccumulation property, it has drawn significant attention. The aim of this study was to investigate cadmium elimination by used soil the wastes of vegetable-oil industries, after being prepared by heating in a vacuum furnace. The absorbent prepared in this way was capable of absorbing metal ions such as cadmium in aqueous environment. Also, how to improve the performance of the absorbent was studied, and the optimal conditions in terms of influent concentration, pH, and absorption value were determined. The best efficiency and absorption capacity were investigated for both organic and inorganic salts of cadmium (cadmium acetate and cadmium solfate) as well. Isotherm curves were developed for Langmiear B.E.T and Frondlich which indicated that cadmium absorption by this absorbent follows Langmiear equation (R= 0.98). Meanwhile, the highest absorption that occurred for cadmium sulphate was 0.1234 mg/g; the efficiency for 10 mg/l of influent concentration was 68.2 per cent when 3.5 g/l of absorbent was applied. An increasing in pH and retention time resulted in higher absorption by the absorbent.

Key words: Cadmium elimination, absorbent, aqueous environment

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36

Social Cost Analysis for So2 Emission in Shahid Rajai

Power Plant 

Mehdi Sadeghi*

*Faculty of Economics, Emam Sadegh University 

Zahra Abedi**

Farideh Atabi**

Massoumeh Torki**(Corresponding Author)

**Faculty of Energy and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University


Electricity production has a lot of advantages for the country, but it also has certain harms and unwanted damages such as environmental destruction. In investigations on electricity generation technologies and their environmental impacts, special attention should be paid to social costs. In this paper, the social costs of SO2 emission have been calculated for Shahid Rajaii Power Plant.

The fossil fuels used in Shahid Rajai Power Plant are natural gas, fuel oil, and gas oil. Having one combined cycle unit and one steam unit, the power plant has a capacity of 2000 MW. The combined cycle unit includes 6 gas turbines and 3 steam units, and the other one has 4 steam units.

To calculate the social costs, the private and external costs were computed separately for each unit of the power plant. The private costs pertain to maintenance, fuel, and investment. The fuel cost was computed for each steam and combined cycle unit in terms of subsidized and FOB prices. The private costs were about 257.652 and 534.371 Rls/KWh. The SO2 emission was compared with the international standard of ambient air in the four seasons and in two conditions: normal and maximum load. The external costs were about, 262.096 and 421.226 Rls/KWh.

Finally, the social costs were obtained from 8 scenarios in two seasons as the sum of private and external costs. The results show that in comparison with the other units, the social costs of the steam unit are considerable, which is due to the high consumption of fuel oil.

Key words: power plant, social cost, external cost, private cost, SO2

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36

Environment, safety, and health management in urban parks

Reza Arjmandi*

Sayed Ali Jozi**

**Faculty of Environment, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University

Jafar Nouri***

***School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Azade Afsharnia*** (Corresponding Author)

*Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University


Regarding the importance of parks in urban areas, issues such as health, safety and environment are important elements which should be considered in the fields of planning, operation, management, and maintenance before the occurrence of accidents and undesirable effects and in order to meet the needs of park users in particular and of citizens in general. The aim of this research is to determine and consider factors affecting the optimal health, safety and environmental management of urban parks and to provide managerial solutions for the improvement of the present situation.

To this end, first the effective factors in health, safety and environmental management of urban parks were determined through library and field studies. Then, two types of questionnaires were used to obtain the opinions of the people in charge and those going to parks regarding health, safety and environmental state of some parks in district No. 5 of Tehran municipality and the results were analyzed using statistical software.

The results indicate that the desirability rate of health indices in the parks under study (58.9%) is less than that of safety indices (%59.2%) and more than that of environmental indices (46.1%). Also, indices such as appropriate health state in the staff rooms of the parks, information state and installation of warning signs while spraying poisons in parks, and the state of accomplished measures to reduce noise pollution in parks had the least desirability rates in the areas of health, safety, and environment (35%, 3.3% and 28.3%, respectively) in the parks under study. 

Key words: Urban Parks, Health, Safety & Environmental Management System (HSE), Health, Safety & Environmental Indices 

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36

Assessment of adverse health effects of electrical and magnetic fields emitted by video display terminals on VDT users in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Abbas Mahmoodi *(Corresponding Author)


Parvin Nasiri*

Hodjatollah  Zeraati*

*School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Ahmadreza Farzaneh Nejad

School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences


The first observations regarding the adverse effects of exposure to VDTs go back to the years following 1970. Most complaints about the negative effects of EMFs emitted by VDTs include: visual disorders, skin rashes and itching, adverse effect on the reproductive system, spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, and pregnancy disorders among VDT users. To assess the adverse effects of EMFs emitted by VDTs, 97 VDT users who spent more than 4 hours a day in front of VDTs were studied in the present research. Also, a questionnaire was used to obtain the required information.

The results of the study showed that there was no significant relationship between the prevalence and intensity of the above-mentioned disorders on the one hand and the exposure to EMFs emitted by VDTs on the other. The results also revealed that, in certain cases, an increase in the exposure time would lead to menstrual disorders among VDT users. OR=1/199 (DI %95: 0/998-1/44). Moreover, the findings showed that an increase in the daily exposure to VDTs aggravated the users’ visual disorders. OR=1/244 (DI %95:1/507-1/027). These findings confirm the results of some of the studies conducted previously on the issue.  

Key words: Electrical and Magnetic Fields (EMFs), Video Display Terminals (VDTs), Cathode Ray Tube display (CRT), adverse health effects, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS)

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36

An Investigation of Environmental and Cultural Principles of Persian Garden Elements (Before and After Islam)


Mohammadreza Bemanian

 Ali Akbar Taghvaee     

Mohammad Sharif Shahidi* (Corresponding Author)

Faculty of Arts, Tarbiat Modares University


This paper aimed at investigating the items and values affecting the Persian Garden as a special place in line with environmental and cultural values. To this end, first the origins of the Iranian ancient culture and its impact on the structure of the Persian Garden were studied. Secondly, the Islamic cultural aspect was investigated as a factor of commitment for providing the similarities between Iranian cultural aspect before and after Islam. Based on historical evidence, besides the Islamic aspects, Iranian knowledge and technique have had a supplementary role in designing the Persian Garden. Despite minor differences in the appearance, the design principles of the Persian Garden have remained unchanged throughout history and can be used by landscape architects in future.

Key words: Persia Garden, culture, environment, structure, knowledge

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36

The effects of a temperature gradient and fluid inertia on acoustic streaming in a standing wave and their application in thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators 

Farshid Ghorbani Shahna(Corresponding Author)

Faculty of Health, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences

Mohsen Rahimi Nejad

School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences


Following the experimental method of Thompson and Atchley, laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) was used to investigate the effects of a thermo-acoustically induced axial temperature gradient and of fluid inertia on the acoustic streaming generated in a cylindrical standing-wave resonator filled with air driven sinusoid ally at a frequency of 308 Hz. The axial component of Lagrangian streaming velocity was measured along the resonator axis and across the diameter at acoustic-velocity amplitudes of 2.7, 4.3, 6.1, and 8.6 m/s at the velocity antinodes. The magnitude of the axial temperature gradient along the resonator wall varied between approximately 0 and 8 K/m by repeating measurements with the resonator surrounded by a water jacket, suspended within an air-filled tank, or wrapped in foam insulation.

The results of the study indicate that there is a significant correlation between the temperature gradient and the behavior of the streaming: as the magnitude of the temperature gradient increases, the magnitude of the streaming decreases, and the shape of the streaming cell becomes increasingly distorted. Therefore, the observed steady-state streaming velocities are not in agreement with any available theory.

Key words: Acoustic, effects of temperature, inertia

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36

Identification and estimation of the population of fishes

in  Namroud River


Mohammadkarim Jazebizadeh*

E-mail : K-jazebizadeh@yahoo.com

Mehrdad Shirin Abadi*(Corresponding Author)

*Fishery Department, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad university




To identify and estimate the population of fishes in Namroud  river (between Namroud Bridge and Tehran Gezel Breeding Center), a period of sampling was done in June, 2004, using an electro shocker. Sampling was done in one phase and in a zigzag over a length of 600 meters, and 43 fishes were hunted altogether.                                                                                 

The results showed that the fishes were of 6 types:              

Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782), Capoeta aculeata (Valencienns, 1844), Capoeta damascina (Valencienns, 1842), Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758), Nemacheilus bergianus ( Derzhavin, 1934) and Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) .                                                                                          

The population estimation of each species was done based on their ratios in the sample.                                                                                        

Considering the obtained species, type of river bed, and temperature and speed of water, it seems that the region under study should be considered as a Sub Mountain Zone according to Holcik-Hensel classification. Such regions have Barbel, Grayling, and Trout. These kinds of fishes are not only native to the region, but they have also come via the exit canal of Tehran Gezel Breeding Center and have survived due to suitable environmental conditions.


Key words: fish, knowledge, estimating, Namroud river, Tehran   

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2008, No.36

بررسی آگاهی زیست محیطی معلمان مقطع متوسطه ایران و هندوستان


محمد شبیری (مسئول مکاتبات)

مربی آموزشی, دانشگاه پیام نور


ان. ان. پراهالادا

انستیتو منطقه ای آموزش – هندوستان

تاریخ دریافت: 5/5/85                                  تاریخ پذیرش: 15/9/85


      مطالعه حاضر آگاهی زیست محیطی دبیران را با توجه به رشته تحصیلی و سوابق خدمتی در دو کشور ایران و هندوستان مورد بررسی قرار می دهد. 1004 دبیر از طریق روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای از 103 دبیرستان واقع در شهرهای تهران و میسور مشتمل بر 505 مرد و 499 زن انتخاب شدند. این افراد با ابزار« تست آگاهی زیست محیطی» (EAT) که توسط (Shabina jinaraja) استاندارد شده بود مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند.

      نتایج نشان می دهد که تفاوت بین گروهی و درون گروهی معنی داری بین سطح آگاهی زیست محیطی دبیران مدارس ایران و هندوستان با توجه به رشته تحصیلی آن ها وجود دارد همچنین سوابق خدمتی فاکتوری نیست که بتواند برآگاهی زیست محیطی دبیران تاثیر گذار باشد.

واژه های کلیدی: آگاهی زیست محیطی، منابع طبیعی، تنوع زیستی، انرژی، آلودگی، مسایل و مشکلات زیست محیطی، سوابق خدمتی و رشته تحصیلی دبیران، ایران، هندوستان، تست آگاهی زیست محیطی (EAT)