J.Env.Sci. Tech., winter 2008, No.35

Modeling of pH Change Impact on Heavy Metal (Nickel and Cadmium) Transmission in Persian Gulf (Khour-e Mousa) Caused by Bandar Imam Khomeini Petrochemical Complex


Amir Hossein Javid

Hassan Samadyar

Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University





   Khour-e Mousa is located in the Northwest of the Persian gulf and is connected to it from the south. Since the region enjoys a special geographical condition, a number of petrochemical industries such as Razi Petrochemical Complex and Imam khomeini Petrochemical Complex as well as wharfs for the export of oil have been constructed.

   The tidal current in the area has caused Khour-e Mousa to be wholly affected by the discharged pollutants. It is to be mentioned that Khour-e Mousa is a suitable area for the high productivity of vegetable, animal, and marine wildlife.  That is why, the area has been included in the international protected areas and also it is one of the international water ways registered by the United nation organization.

   in this research work, by using MIKE 21, the effect of the scattered nickel and cadmium, the effect of the changes in pH of Khour-e Mousa, and the various factors affecting the spread of these metals in Khour-e Mousa were studied. the result of this model indicates that by having a fixed pH, the density of nickel and cadmium increases and continues until it reaches its maximum. The period during which this increase takes place is much shorter than when the pH is variable. This case study therefore shows the importance of tidal currents in changing the pH and their effect on the spread of the heavy metals.


Key words: Imam khomeini Petrochemical Complex, heavy metals, modeling, the Persian Gulf, Khour-e Mousa

J.Env.Sci. Tech., winter 2008, No.35

The impact of power plants efficiency improvement on the environment and economy


Mahdi Sadeghi

Faculty of Economic Sciences

Leila Golavar*

Zahra Abedi*

*Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University




   Economic development is one of the fundamental aspects in the policies of a country and energy is the main and necessary factor for such a development in any society. The increasing population growth, dependence on the energy, and as a result, an increase in the consumption of fossil fuels all cause the environmental problems to increase. Therefore, the energy sector has an extraordinary share in different environmental pollutions.

   Many studies in the world have focused on the serious effects of climate change and the importance of the new technologies for decreasing greenhouse gases (SF6, PFCs, HFCs, CH4, NOx, and CO2) produced by the energy sector including the power plants.

   One way to reduce the environmental impacts of the power plants is the improvement of their efficiency. In this paper which aims at increasing the efficiency of power plants and decreasing their environmental and economic effects, the efficiency of steam power plants, combine cycle power plants, and gas power plants is compared. Moreover, the social costs of the pollutants and their effects on humans and the environment is studied.

   The average efficiency of the plants is affected by such factors as the operation length of the power plant, type and quality of its fuel, situation of exploitation, the relation between product load and nominal load, and the amount of plant egression from the circuit. The results show that reduction in the amount of pollutants and social costs occurred mostly in steam power plants. Therefore, it is suggested that the priority for the implementation of efficiency improvement policies be given to steam power plants.


Key words: Efficiency, fuel power plants, social costs, external costs, emission

J.Env.Sci. Tech., winter 2008, No.35

Investigation of environmental impacts of Kaveh Industrial Zone


Reza Arjmandi*

Ali Jozi

Faculty of Engineering, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University

Saeed Motahari*

*Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University



   Kaveh Industrial Zone with an area of 2500 hectares is located 120 km southwest of Thehran and 10 km northeast of Saveh. At present, there are approximately 450 factories in the area, of which 327 factories are active in different industrial fields. According to the information obtained by the researchers, Kaveh Industrial Zone has a central sewage treatment system. Both the industrial and the hygienic sewage of all factories enter this treatment plant via a sewage collection network. The experiments done on the output of the treatment system show that it is efficient and discharged water has the standards needed for agricultural and irrigation uses. Moreover, research suggests that the most commonly used fuel and energy in Kaveh Industrial Zone are electricity and natural gas, but air pollution studies indicate high NO content. Industrial solid wastes are also considered as a problem. Improper and non-hygienic disposal has caused the landfill site to become a major source of pollution. The measurement made on noise pollution suggests that the noise level is higher than the acceptable standards in most of the stations.

   The results of the study indicate that due to its strategic location, Kaveh Industrial Zone can accommodate more industrial units in future. The shortage of water, however, can be considered as an important factor. Moreover, a suitable environmental management system to mitigate the negative effects of the present and future industrial units is essential. In this research, the existing sources of pollution are considered and certain suggestions are made to reduce their adverse effects.


Key words: Environmental impacts, Kaveh Industrial Zone, pollution, industrial unit

J.Env.Sci. Tech., winter 2008, No.35

Measurement and Modeling of Equivalent Noise Level and Determination of Noise Pollution Critical Zone

(Case Study in an Automobile Manufacturing Co.)


Parvin Nassiri

School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Hossein Mehravaran

Faculty of Physics, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University

Roozbe Ghousi

Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology



   Inappropriate design of manufacturing plants, lack of proper distance among machinery, poor maintenance management, and other factors are among the causes of high noise level in manufacturing plants.

   The results of the machinery noise measurement in the central octave band Frequency, noise maps, and colored contours of modeling are presented in this paper. Then, the noisy critical zones and the validity of modeling software are determined through field measurement. Finally, appropriate controlling measures are presented.


Key words: Equivalent Noise Level, critical zones, noise map, modeling, noise barriers, noise source

J.Env.Sci. Tech., winter 2008, No.35

Green space in high buildings with reconsideration of nature


Ali Sharghi*

[email protected]

Mohammad Hossein Mohtashami*

*Technical Faculty, Shahid Rajaee University




   Getting separated from the ground and residing in high buildings can solve the problem of housing in big cities. But, people will be far from the nature and the ground. This separation cannot be permanent and those living in high buildings would soon search for what they have lost. Despite having modern facilities, such residents wish to live in a house –even an old one -- having a yard and a garden. This would remain a wish unless they get separated from the buildings having no yard or garden.

   In this article, an effort is made to study

       --the manner of controlling the nature’s forces and elements and its ecology,  

       --forgetting the nature and even destroying it,

       --the return to a direct utilization of nature in architecture and construction


The followed process would be explored and the distinctive types in architecture would be introduced and analyzed. The following outcomes would be achieved:

       --It is impossible to put away, destroy, and change the nature and its elements.

       --Getting inspired by or making patterns from the nature is right.

       --Combining the nature with architectural technology is the goal.


Key words: Nature, ecology, green plants, high building, roof

J.Env.Sci. Tech., winter 2008, No.35

Alternatives evaluation in EIA by Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation


Pezhman Roudgarmi*

[email protected]

Nematollah Khorasani

Faculty of Natural Resources, Tehran University

Masoud Monavari*

*Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

Jafar Nouri

School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences




   Environmental evaluation methodologies are applied for the identification and aggregation of environmental impacts as well as the evaluation of alternatives in environmental impact assessment (EIA). In this study, spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) technique was used for environmental impacts and alternatives evaluation. This technique is used in geographical information system (GIS) and it enables GIS in decision making and alternatives evaluation spatially. The aim of this research was a feasible study of GIS application to the environmental impact evaluation by SMCE technique. The evaluation method in SMCE is based on Multi-criteria Analysis. For this study, environmental assessment of a land use plan was considered. Two alternatives were assessed for the environmental impacts and alternatives evaluation: land use plan alternative (Alternative 1) and non-action alternative (Alternative 2). In non-action alternative, region development is based on any designed plan. The most important result of this study was the possibility of environmental impacts and alternatives evaluations in GIS. SMCE has had suitable abilities in environmental impact evaluation. Therefore, GIS could evaluate alternatives in EIA, the action that was impossible in the past. SMCE advantages are such as quantitative present of impact magnitude, aggregation of data layers, quantitative and computerized methods for data layer standardization, ability in weighing impacts by quantitative and qualitative approaches, evaluating many numbers alternatives and considering different weights for impacts and categories of environment. It is possible that SMCE presents desirability of development plan visually. For this presentation, Composite index map was demonstrated by SMCE-ILWIS.


Key words: Alternatives evaluation, EIA, environmental impacts, GIS, SMCE

J.Env.Sci. Tech., winter 2008, No.35

Substitution of NaCN by iron sulfate and hydrated lime in differential flotation of Pb and Zn at Lakan Mineral Processing Plant


Iraj Yousefi

Member of Department mine engineer, Azad University, Mahallat

Gholam Reza Molatahery

Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

Majid Vafaifar

Tarbiat Modares University



            At present, sodium cyanide is used as a depressant to suppress sphalerite and pyrite to obtain a zinc concentrate by differential flotation at Lakan Mineral Processing Plant. NaCN is poisonous for humans and other forms of life and has strong environmental effects. Moreover, it has to be imported into the country.  

            In the present study, sodium cyanide was replaced by iron sulfate and hydrated lime to obtain a concentrate containing 58.75% of Pb and 13.2 % of Zn. Laboratory results indicate that this replacement can be beneficially carried out on an industrial scale.


Key words: Differential flotation, sodium cyanide, iron sulfate, hydrated lime, Concentrate, zinc sulfate

J.Env.Sci. Tech., winter 2008, No.35

Environmental impact assessment in Iran and Industrial countries


Farhad Dabiri*

Mojhde Kiani*

*Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University



            Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a combined operational and administrative view towards sustainable development. This is a view which includes a systematic and consistent regime and states that everything would reach stability through and inside the environment.

Every economic, social and environmental activity is consistent and inter-related in this framework. This concept is mentioned in its most obvious form in the 50th article of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which is one of the most premium articles of the aforementioned law.

 It is worth mentioning that Environmental Impact Assessment is a brand new field of knowledge which includes a developed concept and is gradually finding its real place in the process of social development and growth.

The main aim of this research is to emphasize the priority of prevention instead of cure: prevention of economic, social and environmental damages of influent activities and authorization of this principle in order to justify the necessity of EIA and the increasing need for compilation, approval and ratification of relevant laws and regulations. Since Environmental Impact Assessment is one of the most suitable criteria of sustainable development and environmental management in our country, it must be included in the legal framework and become executive.

Now there exist some laws and regulations about EIA in Iran. Some of these regulations directly and explicitly obligate the proponents of development and civil projects to perform Environmental Impact Assessment. The other laws and regulations, although not having enough clarity in relation to EIA, can be considered as an alternative for EIA laws and regulations due to their similar concept or preventive nature. 

For the regulations which directly observe EIA, article 105 of the 3rd economic, social and cultural development plan of I.R. of Iran, article 10 of the prevention of sound pollution bylaw, and the enacted regulations no. 138 and no. 166 of the Supreme Council of Environment Preservation can be mentioned as some clear examples.

A current investigation on the sanctioned regulations of the I.R. of Iran reveals that now there are 25 principle projects which need EIA in Iran. Among other related laws and regulations, articles 61, 85 and 121 of the 3rd development plan, and articles 12 and 13 of the law of preventing air pollution, and also article 11 of the prevention of water pollution bylaw can be mentioned.

Regarding the necessity of laws and regulations for Environmental Impact Assessment and the increasing need for the execution of these regulations in Iran, and also considering the regulations, articles, and laws which are somehow relevant to EIA, and to investigate similar laws and regulations in other developed and developing countries and to compare them with Iranian laws, this study attempts to explain the problems and limitations of the current EIA regulations in Iran and finally suggest some points to improve the status of EIA in the country.  


Key words: Laws and regulations, Environmental Impact Assessment, preventive rules

J.Env.Sci. Tech., winter 2008, No.35

The effect of Cadmium on renal diseases


Esmat Mohajeri

Faculty of Science, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University

Faramarz Moattar*

Mahmood Mahmoodi*

*Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University



   Cadmium is one of environmental toxic elements which can enter the human body via water, air and food. Then, it accumulates with metallothionines in the kidneys and causes disturbances in normal human activities.

   In this study, Cadmium effect on renal diseases is investigated. To this end, nephrology wards of training and treatment centers were visited and a questionnaire was filled out by their research units and in presence of the researcher. Then observing moral issues, blood sampling from the patients and the control group (5 ml from 40 subjects in each group) was carried out in the research units.

   Using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and upon preparing the blood samples via digesting with Nitric acid, the concentration of cadmium was determined.

   The results indicate that the average concentration of cadmium in the blood samples of renal patients and non-renal patients (control group) were 2.60 and 1.18 ug/l, respectively. The analysis of variance showed that the difference was significant (p=0.000).


Key words: Cadmium, environment, renal diseases, blood

J.Env.Sci. Tech., winter 2008, No.35

Economic consequences of lack of action against invasive Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Caspian Sea coasts


 Hamidreza Ghaffarzadeh

Nazli Honarbakhsh

Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University




   Due to the diversity of its species, the Caspian Sea enjoys many ecological and economic values and people who live close to it benefit from this environmental asset as a source of income. Due to the limitation of job opportunities, fishing and the related industries in the region are so important. Mnemiopsis leidyi invasion has caused instability in the ecosystem and reduced the mentioned benefits. The study of the economic impacts of this invasion through “Market Approach Valuation” method can improve political and managerial discourse to solve this problem.

   The present study shows that there is a causal relationship between the decrease in Kilka resources and the abundance of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Caspian Sea.

   The findings are obtained through a theoretical method, library research, the study of reports and national and regional documents, updated scientific achievements available in the international sites, interviews and meetings with the authorities and decision-makers of the fisheries activities, and as mentioned earlier, based on Market Approach Valuation regarding the benefits of the ecosystems.

   The fishing industry has sustained a loss of 962.5 billion rials in the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea from 2000 to 2004. This is an enormous loss imposed upon the riparian society, the investors, and the government. Moreover, it has caused social impacts such as unemployment, immigration, and so on. Therefore, prompt action should be taken to reduce the effects of this invasion in particular and to explain and implement practical laws to fight against the invasion of marine ecosystem by non-indigenous species in general.  


Key words: Ecological and economic values, Mnemiopsis leidyi, Market Approach, Valuation, Kilka

J.Env.Sci. Tech., winter 2008, No.35

Diversity, density, and distribution of zooplankton in the south of the Caspian Sea in winter 1384 Compared with the previous years



Mojgan Rowshan Tabari*

[email protected] Com

Parisa Nejatkhah

Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University

Seyyed Abbas Hosseini

Gorgan University

Noorbakhsh Khodaparast*

Mohammad Taghi Rostamian*

*Ecological Academy of Caspian Sea,



             This survey was performed in 34 stations in southern part of the Caspian Sea in the winter of 1384. Eight species were observed such as Acartia clausi, A. tonsa, Arcella sp, Foraminiphera sp, Asplanchna sp, Brachionus calyciflorus, Cirripedia, and Lamelibrenchiata larvae.                                                              

            Sampling occurred in the different depths (5, 10, 20, 50, and 100m). The maximum density and biomass of zooplankton exist in depths of 5 and 10m where the figures for the density were 35215 and 5230 ind. /m3 and for the biomass were 213/813 and 34/301 mg/m3, respectively. The frequency of zooplankton in 5m depth was 6.7 times more than that in 10 m depth, and 7.5 times more than the other depths. Acartia naupli were 3.3 and 2.1 times more than that of Acartia in depths of 5 and 10m, respectively.  Maximum density (93094 ind. /m3) was observed in station 21 was in 5m depth where copepda constituted 86.1% of zooplankton population.                                                                                                                  

            In 1374 and 1375, 26 and 23 zooplankton species were identified, respectively, with the highest diversity belonging to cladocera and copepoda. In 1378, 39 species were observed and protozoa, Rotatoria, and cladocera had a higher variety than the previous years. Zooplankton variation was decreased to half and there were 14 and 8 species in 1383 and 1384, respectively. The biomass of zooplankton decreased from 1374 to 1383, and increased in 1384 so that the biomass was 4.5 times more than that in 1383.                                           


Key words: Caspian Sea, zooplankton, depth, diversity, distribution, density  

J.Env.Sci. Tech., winter 2008, No.35

Biometric Relations of Hawksbill Turtle in Qeshm Island’s Coasts


Borhan Riazi*

Kamran Kamali*

*Faculty of Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

Mahmood Karami

Faculty of Fisheries and Natural Resources, Tehran University

Seyyed Mohamad Reza Fatemi

Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technologies, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University




   Every year, a large population of the Sea Turtle species comes to the sandy coasts of Qeshm Island to lay eggs. The most important egg-laying sites for the turtles are the three coasts of Shib Deraz, Shib Poee and Shib Chozi located in the south of Qeshm Island; therefore, the biometric studies were done in these sites.

The study was carried out from February 3 to June 4, 2004. During the period, 302 female turtles came to the sites, among which 129 successfully laid their eggs. Biometry was conducted randomly on 78 mother turtles. The measured parameters included CCL (Carapace Curved Length), CCW (Carapace Curved Width), and Weight after eggs were laid. The most frequent CCL, CCW and weight are 72cm, 68cm, and about 40kg, respectively. The Frequency distribution of all the three parameters approximately follows the normal distribution.


Key words: Hawksbill Turtle, Qeshm Island, Biometry

J.Env.Sci. Tech., winter 2008, No.35

Investigation the Noise Pollution in Borujerd Textile Factory


Maryam Mohammadi Roozbahani

Faculty of Energy and Environment, Science and Research Compus, Ahwaz Branch, Islamic Azad University

Parvin Nassiri*

Farideh Golbabaei*

*Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Researches, Tehran University of Medical Sciences



This study has been carried out to evaluate the noise pollution propagated in textile Factory in Borujerd, IRAN. The noise pollution was measured in all workshops according to ISO9612.The results indicated that the mean sound pressure level in spinning 1 was 97 dBA, Spinning 2 was 90 A, weaving 1 was 100 dBA. The measured values were higher than the permissible exposure limit for 8 hours exposure.

It was also studied the impact of noise pollution on the environment:

The mean equivalent sound pressure level, leq 30 A was 65 dBA during daytime which was lower than the permissible limit for industrial area.


Key words: noise pollution, textile factory, sound pressure, level, permissible exposure limit