J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring  2007, No.32 Special issue



Poliovirus & Non-Polio Enteroviruses (NPEVs) surveillance by examining sewage and

Surface waters of Fars Provience



Mohammad Kargar*

Corresponding author

Hamed Khodai*

Saeedeh Razavi*

*Department of Microbiology, Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad University.

Mahboobeh Sarijlou**

Hamideh Tabatabaie**

Rakhshandeh Nategh**

**Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University

 of Medical Sciences.



Enteroviruses are one of the important pathogens that produce a broad range of human diseases. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring enteric virus circulation and assessing the extent or duration of epidemic Enteroviruses circulation in a specific population. In several countries, silent circulation of wild Polioviruses has been detected in the environment in the absence of reported clinical cases. Therefore, to confirm the final Polio eradication, WHO has recommended environmental surveillance using sewage and surface waters.

The aim of this study was to isolate and determine the types of Polio and Non-Polio Enteroviruses (NPEVs) circulation in sewages of Fars Province. To this end, 48 samples from Shiraz, Jahrom, and Marvdasht were collected by Grab Sampling. Using Direct, Pellet and Two-phase methods for virus concentration, the existence of Enteroviruses in sensitive cell lines was investigated. Then, the isolated viruses were serotyped by Micronutralization method and differentiated intratypically by ELISA and Probe Hybridization techniques. Of the total 63 specimens, 11 cases (22.92%) of

Enteroviruseses and 9 cases (19.57%) of NPEVs were identified. Also, 2 cases (4.17%) of Poliovirus were isolated, neither of which was fortunately a wild virus. Of all the specimens, 2(4.17%), 7(14.58%), and 9(18.75%) Enteroviruses were isolated using Direct, Pellet, and Two-phase methods, respectively. The results of this study confirm the accuracy of environmental surveillance and Poliovirus eradication in Fars Province.



Key words: environmental surveillance, sewage & surface waters, Polioviruses, Non-Polio

Enteroviruses, Fars Province.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring  2007, No.32 Special issue


Examination of mercury concentration in the feathers of eighteen bird species in Iran (from southwest to the Persian Gulf)


Ghasem Zolfaghari*

Corresponding author

[email protected] Or [email protected]

Abbas Esmaili Sari*

Seyed Mahmood Ghasempouri*

*Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University.

Bahram Hassanzadeh Kiabi**

**Department of Wild-life Ecology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Beheshti University.



Birds are suitable specimens for monitoring environmental pollution in order to examine the changes in ecosystems. In this study, the feathers of seventy-seven birds belonging to 18 species (mostly birds of prey) were collected in Iran (from the southwest to the Persian Gulf). Mercury concentrations were measured with regard to the taxonomic affiliation and trophic levels (kinds of food).

The results of the statistical analyses showed that the amounts of mercury in the birds’ feathers were between 0.092 and 2.01 ppm and that there was a significant difference of mercury concentration at the confidence level of 99% for the classified groups (P=0.000). The highest amount of mercury concentration was in common kestrel and falcon (Falconidae). Eagles and goshawk (Accipiteridae) were in the second place. A lesser amount of mercury was seen in Strigidae. Bee-eaters (Meropidae) had a medium amount of mercury concentration and Charadriidae were in the next place while black francolin, see-see partridge, and chukar (Phasianidae) had the least amount of mercury.

The results also showed that there was a significant difference among trophic levels (P=0.000). In comparison to the other species, the amount of mercury in birds of prey was higher because they feed on vertebrates (except fish) and on the higher levels of food chain. The mean amount of mercury in the birds examined was less than that of the other sources. It seems that the exposure of some birds to mercury for a long time causes the high mercury concentration in them.


Key words: birds of prey, mercury, feather, Iran, Persian Gulf

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring  2007, No.32 Special issue 


Evaluation of indoor air quality of houses in Tehran districts 1 and 5 with regard to nitrogen dioxide



Zohreh Hesami*

Corresponding author

Mansoor Ghiassedin

Power Technology Development Center, Tehran, Iran.

Farideh Atabi*

*Faculty of Environment and energy.

Mahmood Mahmoodi

Department of Biostatistics and epidemiology, School of Public Health Tehran University of Medical Sciences.




Population growth, urbanization, changes in people’s way of life, and the countless sources of air pollution in closed urban environments have all caused lots of problems including different kinds of environmental pollution. Since the concentrations of different air pollutants are increasing day by day, big cities like Tehran are now faced with the consequences of these problems so intensively.

Air pollution studies include both indoor and outdoor air quality parameters and considering the fact that people spend most of their time in closed spaces and indoor environments, indoor air quality studies require more attention. One of the important air pollutants is Nitrogen Dioxide that has different effects on peoples’ health such as eye, nose and throat irritations, lung disorders, and respiratory infections in young children.

In this research, the indoor air quality of houses in Tehran districts 1 and 5 has been studied with an emphasis on NO2. Following close visits to the districts and the study of related maps, some stations (20 houses) were selected for sampling which took 5 months to be completed. The results of the study are as follows:

-         NO2 level in the first floor of buildings was more than that of the other floors.

-         NO2 level in stations near streets in district 1 was more than that in district 5.

-         NO2 level in stations located in allies in district 1 was more than that in district 5.

-         NO2 level in stations which were near streets in district 1 was less than that in stations which were in allies.

The following measures can be taken to control the mentioned pollutant: have gas appliances properly serviced, consider purchasing vented space heaters when replacing un-vented ones, install and use exhaust fans and hoods in the kitchens, choose stoves of proper sizes, have trained professionals inspect the heating systems annually, repair any leak promptly, and do not let the cars idle inside garages.


 Key words: indoor air quality, nitrogen dioxide, measurement stations, Tehran districts 1 and 5

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring  2007, No.32 Special issue


Compilation of air pollutants emission factors in oil refineries to achieve sustainable development indices


Majid Abbaspour

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology.

Abdolreza Karbassi

Faculty of Environment, Tehran University.

Mohammad Sadegh  Sekhavatjoo

Corresponding author

Faculty of Energy and Environment, Science and Research Branch,

 Islamic Azad University.




Iran is a developing country that has compiled certain plans for its industrial development. In line with achieving sustainable development in various fields, some quantitative indices have been introduced, which are good indicators for the evaluation of achievements. At present, the share of oil industry in the country’s GNP is over 80%. According to the outlook considered for the year 2015, Iran’s refining capacity must reach 2.5 million barrels of crude oil per day. The development of oil industry including refineries must be based on environmental considerations. Thus, the present investigation aims at compiling air pollutants emission factors and GHGs to be used as quantitative indices for production, fuel consumption or even services. In this study, Tabriz refinery is chosen and the results are compared with those of the developed countries. Finally, long-term targets for emission factors are developed. The primary results are indicative of higher emission factors for CO2 (3.5 times), NOX (4.2 times), and SOX (119 times) when compared with the emission factors of British refineries.



Key words: sustainable development, emission factors, air pollutants, oil refineries

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring  2007, No.32 Special issue 


Modeling the impacts of economic activities

On environmental pollution



Ali Khaksari

Corresponding author

Faculty of Social Sciences, Allameh Tabatabaii University.

»[email protected]«

Mir Hossein Mousavi

Transportation Research Institute, Tehran, Iran

»[email protected]«



Due to the importance of sustainable development, economic planning and policy-making need to be changed and made appropriate to the new situation and concerns. The development of environment-friendly industries and attention to factors such as environmental pollutions and natural ecosystems are of particular priority. So policy- makers should try to reduce the destructive impacts of different activities on the environment. At the same time, they should help make industries more sustainable and reduce the external costs of pollution-making industries by a better allocation of resources and economic facilities.

In this research, the effect of three economic activities, namely, transportation, industries, and household on the Greater Tehran Area (GTA) based on daily data in the year 1382 (2003-2004) is investigated and analyzed. The results show that the fuel consumption by the households has the fewest impacts on pollution emissions while industries are the main cause of pollution, and transportation activities are mainly responsible for PM and CO pollutions in the area.


Key words: environmental pollutions, materials balance model, Greater Tehran Area, Environmental economics, panel data model

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring  2007, No.32 Special issue 


Corrosion caused by stray current and contact voltage in electrified railway systems and methods for its control



Asghar Nasr

Corresponding author

Faculty of Railways, Iran University of Science and Technology.

Ahmad Gholami

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology.

Mohammad Noghani

Department of Materials and Metallurgy, Imam Khomeini International University.

Vahid Aboui

Faculty of Materials and Metallurgy, Iran University of Science and Technology.

Mohsen Niasati

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology.





In electrified railway systems, part of the returning current deviates from its primary path and enters the surrounding environment. This current is known as stray current which could cause corrosion both in the railway system and in the surrounding equipment. The percentage of corrosion depends on several parameters such as the main current, track type, railway and transit system, design, etc. The stray currents represent serious problems for any electrified railway system. This has been a major concern to the railway and other parties involved since the early days of DC railways. The stray currents create or accelerate the electrolytic corrosion of metallic structures located in the proximity of the transit system. This causes metal pipes, cables and earthing grids laid in the ground near the tracks to have a much shorter life which is highly important in regard to safety and economy. The other concern regarding stray current is the contact voltage which causes serious safety problems in the railway systems. Though there are currently some railway systems under construction in the major cities of the country, the issues of stray current corrosion and safety have not received any attention in research by the parties involved. This study aims at introducing the main parameters affecting stray current and safety in DC electrified railway systems.       



Key word:electrified rail way, Urban train, stray Current, Contact Voltage, Environmental damage, control

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring  2007, No.32 Special issue 


Investigation and data collection on existing pollutants in the Karaj and Jajroud Rivers


Ali Torabian*

*Factulty of Environment , University of Tehran.

Amir Hessam Hassani**

Mahmood  Shariat***

Fariba Sherri**

Corresponding author

Sayed Reza Miralizade**

**Faculty of Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University.

***School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Researches, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.




The central watershed is located inside a highland region between the Cental Alborz and Zagros mountain ranges. The Karaj and Jajroud Rivers are the most important rivers of the watershed. Since theses two rivers are the main sources of water supply for the city of Tehran, their contamination is a serious concern.

In this study, the results of physical, chemical, bacteriological, and microbial experiments which are routinely performed each month by Tehran Water and Waste Water Laboratory are analyzed. Also, water pollution sources and their distribution in the area are recognized. Then, the water quality of the Karaj and Jajroud Rivers is studied and analyzed at 20 stations along the Karaj River and 23 stations along the Jajroud River (from April 2003 to March 2004). Finally, the water quality of the rivers is compared with NSF Index (National Sanitation Foundation). It is concluded that the water quality of the rivers is on the average within the acceptable range. Regarding the chemical quality and rare pollutants (heavy metals), all water quality parameters are lower than the maximum permissible amount with regard to the Ministry of Energy’s Standard for the drinking water.

Besides, the study shows that due to waste water discharges, there are a lot of Fecal Coliforms in the rivers. Investigation on the average number of Fecal Coliforms in different seasons shows that the Karaj River in summer and the Jajroud River in summer and fall have the highest number of them, which can be due to an increased use of the nearby areas for recreational purposes.

Although the discharge of pollutants has increased in recent years, the water of the Karaj and Jajroud Rivers is still used as a source of drinking water supply after conventional treatment. However, due to the increasing trend of construction, if no coordinate and planned measures are taken by the responsible organizations, the quality of water using conventional treatment processes will be endangered.


Key words: watershed, pollutant, Quality Index

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring  2007, No.32 Special issue


Preparation of acid sludge obtained from

The recovery of used oil for its purification



Mortaza Kashefiolasl*

Reza Marandi*

Corresponding author

*Faculty of Technology, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University.

Mortaza Khosravi**

Mohammad Reza Mast Zohouri**

**Faculty of Chemistry, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University.




Preparation of acid sludge obtained from the recovery of used oil for its purification and use in other industries requires an accurate understanding of the compounds existing in it.

In this study, using chemical pre-purification operations as well as XRF and ICP techniques for the exact recognition of the existing metals and compounds, the conditions for the removal or reduction of such metals and elements were investigated. Moreover, employing the GC-MASS technique, the use of valuable hydrocarbon compounds in other industries was studied. Furthermore, due to the high burning temperature of the acid sludge, its use in furnaces for making cement was considered.





Key words: acid sludge, used oil, vacuum distillation, hydrocarbon, recovery

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring  2007, No.32 Special issue 



Removal of nitrogen effluent from the slaughterhouse wastewater by MAP precipitation



Amir Hossein Javid

Corresponding author

Faculty of Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University.

Seyyed .Mehdi Borgheie

Faculty of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology.

Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi

Faculty of Health, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences.

Mehdi Mokhberiyan

Faculty of Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University.





Eutrophication problems in water can be caused by the Nitrogen and Phosphorus existing in surface water. Separation of N and P from wastewater by chemical precipitation of Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate (MAP) is one of the best methods for the nutrients’ control.

In this study, batch systems were employed to examine the influence of pH and Mole Ratio Mg2+:NH4+:PO43- of Slaughterhouse wastewater in MAP precipitation process.

Na2HPO4.12H2O and MgCL2.6H2O were used as the sources of P and Mg. NH3-N was measured in effluent before operations and in supernatant after precipitation of MAP. The best results were obtained in mole ratios of 1:1:1 and 0.4:1:0.5 (Mg2+:NH4+:PO43-), where the amounts of reduction of NH3-N were 61.61% and 60.6%, respectively when pH was 10. The results indicate that the MAP precipitation is an efficient method for the recovery of nitrogen.



Key words: Magnesium-Ammonium-Phosphate (MAP), slaughterhouse, precipitation, Nitrogen removal

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring  2007, No.32 Special issue



The effect of salt-stress on some of the ecophysiolgic and biochemical properties of the pistacia mutica


Hamid Noorani Azad*

Farshid Kafilzadeh*

Corresponding author

Hamid Mohammadi*

*Faculty of Biology, Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad University

Nooreddin Goodarzian**

**Faculty of Chemistry, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University



In this study, the physiological and biochemical adaptation of the species pistacia mutica was evaluated at six salinity levels ( o., 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl ) using a completely randomized design. The growth analysis, protein assey, and soluble sugars in the plant organs and in the whole plant were also taken into account .

It was observed that scarification was the necessary pre–treatment for seed germination.

The result showed that the length of the plant’s stem and the dry matter decreased with an increase in salinity, but the fresh matter and the length of the root increased. Salinity also increased the plant’s proteins and sugars, a fact that showed the former could be an agent for adaptation and the latter for osmotic regulation against the stress conditions in this plant.

Key words: pistachio, salinity, protein, sugar

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring  2007, No.32 Special issue 


A social cost-benefit analysis of

Tehran subway tracks expansion


Zahra Abedi*


Corresponding author

*Faculty of Environment and Eenergy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University.



The goal of this study is to present the applications of the “cost-benefit analysis”  for selecting the urban public transportation systems. The main point of this investigation is to recognize the social and economic benefits of the subway system which affect the human health and environment,  and also the comparison between the benefits of this system and the costs of this selection. Based on the existing methods, a cost-benefit analysis was performed on the selection policy of the public transportation system and the costs of this policy were compared with its benefits. Based on this analysis, the ratio of benefits to costs was calculated. The ratio for the subway’s line one was estimated to be greater than one in 1383 (2004). It is obvious that the greater this ratio is, the more economical an activity is considered.   



Key words: cost-benefit, air pollution, transportation, social cost, sustainable development.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring  2007, No.32 Special issue 



The study of sound pollution in ILAM schools and appointment of Articulation Index


Parvin Nasiri

Corresponding author

School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Researches,

 Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

Javad Sajjadi

Faculty of Environment and Energy Science and Research Branch,

 Islamic Azad University.



The presence of noise pollution in schools cause many problems including fatigue, stress, and speech disorders which are considered as its worst complications and adverse effects. In other words, the existing noise causes two different effects; first, it affects the clarity of the "desired" sound and secondly, it alone leads to unpleasent and unacceptable sound annoyance.

Due to economic and technical reasons, the complete elimination of these noises is not possible; therefore, it is necessary to determine figures and put a limit to noises. The acceptable limits are called "noise criteria" and vary for different environments.

In this study, the noise levels and reverberation time of 40 classes in 24 elementary, guidance, and high schools in the city of ILAM were measured. Moreover, the physical appearance of the buildings in terms of the materials used for the construction of the buildings, doors, and windows as well as the acoustic issues were examined.

The findings show that the noise level obtained (PNC 59) was significantly higher than both the recommended levels and the limits considered acceptable in the developed countries (PNC 35). This research showed that the Articulation Index (AI) was 0.547 in the classes observed, which caused interruptions in verbal communication, speech intelligibility, and sound annoyance. The resuls of the investigation proved that the presence of noise in schools could significantly be decreased by applying some relatively simple and low-cost measures.  


Key words: noise, Articulation Index, reverberation time.