J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2007, No.32

The study of municipal solid waste landfills in Tehran using Oleckno method

Seyyed Masood Monavari
Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University
Nematollah Khorassani
Faculty of Natural Resources, Tehran University
Ghassem Ali Omrani
School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Parinaz Arbab
Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Campus, Islamic


Considering the irregular development of cities, improper consumption patterns, increasing production of waste, and deficiencies in waste management systems, the most logical and the least costly method for disposing of municipal wastes is sanitary landfill.

Despite the possibility of employing the composting process, landfills are used in the province of Tehran with a daily production of 11,000 tons of wastes. Moreover, engineering and environmental principles and criteria for waste disposal are not observed in many landfills. As a result, such places are often non-hygienic and environmental hazards are quite probable.

In this research, landfill sites have been visited in all the cities of Tehran province and certain characteristics such as annual waste production, ground water level, area, slope, soil type, and vegetation cover have been surveyed, the problems have been identified, and the sites have been compared with each other.

In this study, Oleckno Method has been used. The evaluation of landfills by this method shows that the conditions in most cities are desirable; others are relatively acceptable, and the rest are unacceptable.


Key words: landfill site, municipal solid waste, Oleckno, Tehran province

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2007, No.32

Modeling the emission of particulate matter using ADMS-Urban


Farideh Atabi*
Majid Abbaspour**
Abdolreza Karbasi*
Seyyed Alireza Haji Mirza Hosseini*

*Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

**Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology



Toady, one of the main factors contributing to the air pollution in such metropolises as Tehran are the suspended particles resulting from automobiles, heavy traffic on the roads,  and different industrial activities.

Particulate matter (PM) is a generic term used to describe a complex group of air pollutants that vary in size and composition, depending on the location and the time of their dispersion. The PM mixture of fine airborne solid particles and liquid droplets (aerosols) include components of nitrates, sulfates, elemental carbon, organic carbon compounds, acid aerosols, trace metals, and geological materials.

ADMS-Urban is an advanced model which is used for calculating concentrations of pollutants emitted continuously from point, line, volume, and area sources and of pollutants emitted intermittently from point sources.

The model is an advanced Gaussian-type model and uses Gaussian distribution for such concentrations and is recommended for regulatory use for multiple buoyant or passive industrial emissions from urban or rural areas of flat or complex terrains with transport distances less than 50 km and periods of time ranging from a few seconds to a year.

The percentage of the suspended particles and meteorological parameters such as the speed and direction of the wind, temperature, and cloud cover were measured for the city’s municipality District 22 over a year, twice in a day (morning and afternoon), and for one week in each month. The data were collected at 13 mobile measurement stations during the critical time of traffic (the time with the highest rate of density and dispersion of suspended particles in the air).

The obtained results were presented in the GIS environment of the District because of the availability of sheets in that environment. The output of this mathematical model was compared with the inventory model (databank) of the air pollution in District 22. The results showed a similarity between the output of the mathematical modeling and the real measured data.

This model has been used for the first time for modeling the pattern of particles emission in Tehran. The results also showed that due to the existing vehicles and traffic, Tehran-Karaj freeway and the eastern border of District 22 had the highest density and concentration of suspended particles.


Key words: particulate matter emission, mathematical models, ADMS Model, inventory

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2007, No.32

Sustainability approach in the urban context



Farah Habib

Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

Email: frh_habib@ yahoo.Com




Certain concepts such as “urbanization”, “citizenship”, “civilization”, “politics”, and “democracy” have come into existence with the emergence of cities. That is why cities should be suitable places for human life, harmony with nature, future generations, group cooperation, social interaction, and cultural exaltation. But today, the word has become synonymous with “pollution”, “environmental destruction”, “disorganization”, “disturbance”, “violence”, and “social disintegration”. While the city is a place where we are born, grow up, get educated, work, live, experience, wish, make the future and the future generations, and have social intercourse with others, we notice that our past citizenship with its numerous positive features has undergone fundamental changes--especially in such concepts as traditional citizenship and civilization--as a result of the recent great transformations. Therefore, the principles and values governing the construction of our cities in the past were forgotten before having the chance to conform to the new conditions. They need to be revived.

In this article, some key definitions have been reviewed and it has been attempted to look at the concept of sustainability within the structure of urbanization in a novel way. That is, besides the environmental, ecological, and energy issues within the four major fields of education, structural physical schemes, management, and codification of laws and regulations, the article presents a sustainability approach with an emphasis on social interactions. Moreover, certain suggestions have been made within the context of urbanization.


Key words: sustainability, social interaction, neighborhoods, sense of belonging to a place, suitable place for social interaction.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2007, No.32

Mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of three added compounds to Sirri field crude oil, by salmonella thyphimurium (Ames test)


Mojhgan Emtiazjoo
Faculty of Marine Sciences, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University
Atena Khanafari
Faculty of Basic Sciences, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University
Sara Abedin
Faculty of Microbiology, Basic science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University
Sara Eshghabadi
Falaat’e Ghaare Oil Company



Petroleum and the chemicals used for its proceessing from drilling to transfer may have mutagenic, carcinogenic or high toxic effects. Entering the aqusatic environment, these compounds affect food networks and human beings.

In this study, the genotoxic effects of oil soluble corrosion inhibitors, demulsifiers, and defoamers used during oil processing  are examined by Ames test, using salmonella thyphimurium strains in the presence and absence of liver microsomal fraction (S9).

Genotoxicity was evaluated by TA100, TA97 and TA1545 strains of salmonella thyphimurium and plate incorporation method.

The results showed that demulsifiers and oil soluble corrosion inhibitors were genotoxic at 10 ml dose and toxic at higher doses. Defoamers were reported as a mutagen and carcinogen at 10 ml and 100 ml doses.

In general, adding such chemical compounds to crude oil and injected water leads to an increase in genotoxic or toxic effects.


Key words: petroleum, demulsifier, genotoxic, salmonella thyphimurium, Ames test

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2007, No.32

The environmental study of airborne sulphates in a petrochemical complex



Hassan Asiliyan*
Ali Khavanin*

Seyyed Bagher Mortazavi
Soghrat Faghihzadeh**
Rasool Yarahmadi*

* Faculty of -------------------, Tarbiat Modarress University
**Faculty of ------------------, Tarbiat Modarress University



Due to their physical and chemical properties, sulphur compounds and derivatives are among the most commonly used matters in chemical, paper manufacturing, and acid production industries and the main sources for the emission of these compounds are the power plants and the ground transportation systems. The identification and measurement of the airborne sulphates as one of the environmental problems is of great importance.

Aimed at measuring these sulphates, this study was performed over the two seasons of spring and summer in the open areas of a petrochemical complex.

For the measurement of airborne sulphates under psychometric conditions, a method approved by the EPA was employed: “the measurement and evaluation of airborne sulfates by using tourin as the titration indicator”.

Then, the model of air pollution in each season was drawn graphically with indicators showing the concentration and the place of measurements and indicators that showed the interference of psychometric factors.

The measurement of airborne sulphates in the open areas of the petrochemical complex show that the average figures for sulphates concentration are 250 μg/m3 and 294 μg/m3 in the spring and in the summer, respectively. The results show that the figures for both seasons are more than the standard limit permitted by the EPA (150 μg/m3).

The concentration of airborne sulphates in the open areas of the complex shows a meaningful positive relationship with the dry temperature of the environment (P<0.05, r=0.975) and a significant negative relationship with the velocity of the wind (P<0.01, r=-0.85). 


Key words: airborne sulphates, psychometric, wind velocity, dry temperature

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2007, No.32

The study of water quality in Karaj River in terms of the diversity of macroinvertebrate families

Seyyed Hadi Khatami*
Environmental Protection Organization
Borhan Riazi**
Seyyed Ali Modiri Assari**
Facaulty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University



With regard to the ever-increasing importance of the researches on the quality of water, the study of benthic macroinvertebrates seems to be essential as they are complementary indicators for chemical methods of pollution determination.

In this research, to evaluate the water quality of the Karaj River based on the presence of macroinvertebrates, sampling has been carried out in seven stations along the river over two periods. Then invertebrate samples have been identified up to family level. The results suggest that in terms of the number of families, station No. 6 in the first period and station No. 4 in the second have had the best conditions. Also, laboratory experiments on physical and chemical factors such as the dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, the total dissolved solids (TDS), the electrical conductivity (EC), and the total suspended solids (TSS) have all had desirable values which support the presence of clean water bioindicators. The results show that the quality of water in the Karaj River has been desirable in all the stations during the periods of the study and it has been suitable for any use:  in industry, for agriculture, and as drinking water.


Key words: quality of water, Karaj River, benthic, bioindicators

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2007, No.32

Theoretical modeling of lateral spread of 3-D density currents containing unsteady particles


Seyyed Mohammad Reza Moossavi Hekmati
Shahr-e Ray Branch, Islamic Azad University

Manoochehr Rad
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology

Bahar Firoozabadi
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology



Density current is one of the natural phenomena, which plays an important role in the emission of pollution. Therefore, understanding the behavior of this phenomenon is important for the prediction and control of such emission. In this paper, the spread of three-dimensional, turbulent and unsteady inclined turbidity currents has been investigated. The experimental results were normalized in the form of non-dimensional plots and then a theoretical model was presented. The current width b vs distance x from the source was normalized with respect to the initial buoyancy length scale, and the related time was normalized with respect to the initial buoyancy time scale. The results show that in the plots of non-dimensional current width vs non-dimensional distance and non-dimensional time, two regimes R1 and R2 are distinguished. This indicates that in these two regimes, the amount and type of the balanced forces are different. In regime R1, the rate of lateral growth is less than that in regime R2, while the current width in R1 and R2 regimes are proportional to and , respectively.


Key words: turbidity current, theoretical modeling, unsteady lateral spread

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2007, No.32

Industrial solid waste management in Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex (B.I.P.C.)


Nader Mokhtarani*
Mohammad Reza Alavi Moghaddam**
Babak Mokhtarani***
Reza Rezaee*
Siroos Naserian****

*Jahesh Kimia Company
**Faculty of Environment and Civil Engineering, Amir Kabir University of Technology
***Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran
Bandar Imam Khomeini Petrochemical Complex




Bandar Imam Khomeini Petrochemical Complex (BIPC) which is located in the southwest of Iran is the biggest petrochemicl complex in the country. As one of the pioneers observing the environmental issues, BIPC has taken useful steps in the field of industrial wastes.

The aim of this study was to optimize different functional elements of the industrial wastes in BIPC. In the first stage of the study, quantitative and qualitative analyses of the industrial solid wastes were done. The obtained results showed that the main industrial wastes of BIPC were sludge, oil, and polymers with the weight percentages of 40, 24, and 21.5, respectively. Because of the different types of products and the diversity of industrial residues, waste management in BIPC is quite a complex task. In most cases, recycling the wastes seems to be the best option; however, treatment and disposal are also necessary. According to the obtained results, more than 58 percent of the total wastes can be sold to the accrediated recycling factories. By the implementation of integrated solid waste management in BIPC, the environmental impacts of the wastes will be minimized.     


       Key words: B.I.P.C., disposal, hazardous waste, industrial waste, waste generation


J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2007, No.32

The study of environmental issues of the new town of Pardis and the presentation of managerial approaches


Nasser Moharramnejad
Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic azad University
E-mail: moharamnejad@gmail.com
Mohsen Malvandi
Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University



Due to the absence of environmental assessment and the long and simultaneous construction and settlement activities of the new town of Pardis, the inhabitants confronted many difficulties including the following:

  1. shortage of water
  2. flow of the agricultural, industrial, and urban sewage into the natural channels of the region
  3. existence of some industries like alcohol and cement factories near the town, Tehran- Rudehen transit road passing by the town, and noise pollution caused by heavy-duty vehicles passing through this road 
  4. soil erosion, physical destruction of the land, and soil contamination due to the sewage running into the channels
  5. lack of the necessary green space in the town.

In this study, in addition to investigating the existing environmental conditions, some managerial alternatives are presented which can help remove the difficulties and prevent them in future.


Key words: new town, environmental pollution, environmental, managerial 

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2007, No.32

The governments’ responsibility and commitment with regard to the environment


Ali Vafadar
Research Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies



Modern  industrial  activities  which  cause  losses and threats to  the environment  of  countries are  usually  done by  the active  private  sectors, so they should be responsible for inflicting such  losses. Therefore, the  international  rules  and  regulations  pertaining to  the  private  sector’s responsibility  is  one  of  the  important  aspects  of  the  law  making  project  of  the  International  Laws  Committee.

The serious point to be considered is that certain funds should be set up to pay reparations for such losses. This can be done in different ways. One solution is to create responsibility for the countries issuing the license for these activities. It is clear that the  combination  of  private  and  state  responsibilities  is  one  of  the  important problems which requires a proper solution. And this can lead to a change in the international responsibility for the environmental losses.


Key words: responsibility, governments, international, loss, compensation, environment

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2007, No.32

The place of environmental issues in the planning laws of I. R. Iran


Farhad Dabiri*
Majid Abbaspour*
Reza Maknoon*
Bita Azadbakht*

*Faculty of ---------------, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University



Today the world is increasingly confronted with two important approaches of planning and environment to sustainable development. Hence, the emergence of a new term: Environment Law, part of which being the planning laws. Development requires devising strategies, making policies, and preparing plans (long-term, mid-term, and short-term) based on a country’s ideals, capabilities, and environmental considerations.

A review of the six pre-revolution construction plans and the four post-revolution development plans shows that the place of the environment law is enhanced in the process of preparing the planning laws and ratifying them.

The study of the post-revolution development plans reveals that environment whose status was poorly reflected in just one note (note 13) out of the 52 notes in the first development plan is enhanced to one of the six main topics in the fourth development plan, i. e., “environment conservation, land use planning, and regional balance”.

Of the total 161 articles of the fourth development plan, 15 articles pertain to the environment and in another 14 articles, the importance of observing the environmental issues is considered by the law-makers. Yet, the fourth plan itself shows that there is a long way ahead towards the optimal situation. 

The steps taken are indicative of moving in a rather successful path in terms of incorporating the environmental considerations into the development plans for the attainment of a sustainable development. Thorough success, however, requires the full implementation of the plans.

It should be acknowledged that the realization of all the environmental goals mentioned in the developmental plans, particularly the fourth plan having an environmental orientation, calls for such elements as strengthening the fundamental substructures, coordinating the environmental issues, enjoying the national will and determination, and preparing the grounds for the public (specially the NGOs’) cooperation. The fifth development plan should be a manifestation of such crucial elements. In the meantime, we should seek to prepare a long-term plan for the country’s sustainable development.  


Key words: strategy, main policies, planning laws, environment

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2007, No.32

The effect of high salinity on the growth and survival of parthenogenetic Artemia of lagoons around Urmia and Ghom lakes

Nahid Khalili*
Hossein Emadi*
Hossein Negarestan**

*Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University.
**Iranian Fisheries Research Institute



The present study was designed to examine the effect of increased salinity on the growth, survival, reproductive characteristics, and life-span of two populations of parthenogenetic Artemia living in the lagoons around the lakes of Urmia and Ghom. For culture, 25-liter glass aquariums were used. Because of the different degrees of salinity, adaptations were made in the first 10 days of culture; that is, culture started from 100 ppt and ended with the targeted salinity. During these ten days, five samples were taken randomly in six repetitions from each salinity type and the concentration of salt in each type was measured daily.  

The results showed that the survival rate of Artemia decreased with increased salinity and, in general, the survival rate of Artemia in Ghom Lake was higher than that in Urmia Lake. Moreover, the growth rate of Artemia was reversely related to salinity.


Key words: Artemia, parthenogenetic, Urmia, Ghom, growth, survival

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2007, No.32

A comparative study of the effect of physical and biological barriers on noise pollution reduction in the area between Nour and Sisangan forest parks



*Leila Fathi Najafabadi
*Abbas Esmaili Sari
*Mahmood Ghassempoori

      * Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modarres University



In this study, 5 stations were selected and the amount of sound reduction by biological and physical barriers were measured and compared to that of the control station. These barriers consisted of broad leaves cover, evergreen cover, plain wall, porous wall, and fences with vegetation cover.  The control station was a field without any barriers. 

The results of the vstudy showed that the plain wall was the most effective and the porous wall was the least effective barrier for the insertion loss. Moreover, it turned out that to have the standard sound level, the distance from the road should be 80 meters for the control station and the porous wall, 40 meters for the plain wall, and 60 meters for the other types of barriers.


  Key words: noise pollution, noise barriers, equivalent sound level, Nour Forest Park