J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2007, No.31

Modeling and Assessment of Rey's Groundwater Quality


Majid Ehteshami*

Ali Sharifi*†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

*Faculty of Environment, K. N. T. Industrial University


Key words: modeling, groundwater, contamination, Rey City, nitrate, MT3D- PMWIN-5.3



The City of Rey with a population of 1 million suffers from water crisis. Among different water resources, groundwater has a major role in supplying 40 to 50 percent of the cityís drinking water. Therefore, its contamination must be studied both as a regional issue and as a threat to the social health.

In this study, nitrate is considered as the best index showing the groundwater contamination, especially due to the anthropogenic activities in the area. In studying the nitrate contamination of the groundwater, there were several problems such as the lack of proper data and the vastness of the case-study area.

This study focuses on contamination sources, saturated zones, and the quantity of nitrate discharged into the groundwater .The groundwater concentration in central and eastern parts of the city is 65 ppm.

The mathematical model (MT3D) makes it possible to predict the groundwater quality. The simulation results show that the concentration of nitrate will increase in the central and eastern regions, but a sewage collection network can reduce the concentration of nitrate by 30 ppm.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2007, No.31

The Quality and Quantity of Municipal Soild Waste and Its Feasibility to Be Recycled in Sistan & Baloochestan Province


Ghassem Ali Omrani

School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Science

Afshin Maleki

Faculty of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

Ali Sharafat Mola

Recycling Organization, Shiraz Municipality


Key words: recycling, solid waste, compost, physical and chemical quality



Recycling is one the widely used alternatives in the solid waste management system. For recycling plans, recognizing the quality and the quantity of the solid waste is quite necessary. All over the world, especially in the developed countries, a lot has been done in this regard. But in Iran, no comprehensive survey about the potential of recycling in urban areas has been done.

For the first time, this study was implemented in 2003 for all provinces including Sistan and Baloochestan. Three cities of Zahedan, Iranshahr and Chabahar were chosen for study. Sampling and examinations were done according to the standard methods obtained from governmental agencies and the related literature.

The results show that every person produces 504 g solid waste per day with the moisture and density of 25.5% and 182.8 kg/m3, respectively. Solid waste consists of 53% garbage. C/N ratio, 22, makes it suitable for composting. Other important constituents are plastic and paper

with 10.8% and 10.5%, respectively.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2007, No.31

Numerical Models Predicting Oil Spills Movement

in the Persian Gulf


Shahla Habibi

Faculty of Energy and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

Masood Torabi

Faculty of Energy and Environment, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University

Ali Akbar Bidokhti

Geophysics Institute, Tehran University


Key words: numerical model, governing equation, oil slick, Persian Gulf, Richardson number, Schmidt number



This study considers oil trajectory and fate models in the Persian Gulf, which have been studied in Iran and other countries. The governing equations and the main physical parameters are determined in processes affecting an oil slick. Schmidt and Richardson numbers are used in mass transfer coefficient for evaporation and vertical diffusion coefficient, respectively. The main governing equations of the movement of the oil slick are Navier-Stokes equation, continuity equation and concentration transport equation. The effective source term ( massbalance ), which includes the evaporation, dissolution, and vertical dispersion, as well as the shoreline and bed deposition and also vertical and horizontal diffusion coefficients are important factors in the concentration transport equation.

Based on studies, an ideal two-dimensional trajectory and fate model simulates the movement of the oil slick. The characteristic of an ideal three-dimensional oil fate model simulates the distribution of oil particle concentration in the water column. This model is proposed for the prediction of oil spill movement in the Persian Gulf. The model has been run for the region between the Khark Island and the Bushehr Port. The results show consistency with other similar studies.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2007, No.31

Determining Tehran's Air Quality in 2004

Using Air Quality Index (AQI)


Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Moddares University

Abbas Esmaili Sari

Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Moddares University

Mehrdad Cheraghi

Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University

Lima Tayebi

Department of Environment, Malayer University

Mahmood Ghasempouri

Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Moddares University


Key words: healthy air, Air Quality Index, Pollutant Standard Index, Air Pollution Index.



Today, the numerous consequences of air pollution, especially those related to peopleís health such as respiratory, heart and nervous system diseases, have made the monitoring and control of air quality an unavoidable issue and the main concern in all societies.

In this study, due to the fact that Tehran's air is much polluted, the city's air quality index for 5 major air pollutants -- O3, PM10, CO, SO2, and NO2 Ė in 2004 was calculated.

The Air Quality Index showed that 262 days in the year under study, air pollution had been more than the accepted standard level (i.e., AQI = 100). In 12 percent of the days, the air quality was rated as unhealthy and in 5 percent of the days as hazardous, with carbon monoxide as the cause of pollution in 83% of the cases. It should also be mentioned that the three months of August, September and October of 2004 were the most polluted with average indices of 190, 185, and 188 on the AQI scale.

Comparing the results of this study with the results of the studies done in the previous years, it can be concluded that Tehran's air quality has not improved much and is still very dangerous for people, specially the sensitive groups.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2007, No.31

Environmental Impacts of the Exhaust Fumes Released in

Underground Tunnels of Tehran Subway


Mohammad Javad Jafari

Faculty of Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

Farideh Atabi

Faculty of Energy and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

Mohammad Khorram

Tehran Subway Occupational Health Department.


Key words: subway, air pollution, carbon monoxide, ventilation, air velocity, relative humidity, environmental.



Due to the modern life and human activities, air pollution has now become a main concern in Tehran and other large cities and may lead to important environmental impacts. Since traffic plays a major role in polluting the air of Tehran, public transportation as the best option in the world is essential to prevent and control air pollution. Subway as a fast, safe, and reliable means of public transportation has the fewest environmental impacts. Now, Tehran subway plays a significant role in reducing the city's air pollution.

In this study, the environmental impacts of 4 inter-station ventilation systems in the northern half of line one of Tehran subway were studied. To this end, the carbon monoxide, relative humidity, air velocity, and temperature in 4 different stations were measured and compared to the similar parameters measured by the environmental monitoring stations located close to the subway stations of this study.

The results show that the average carbon monoxide concentration level at the subway stations are 30% to 40% lower than the average carbon monoxide concentration levels measured by environmental monitoring stations located close to the subway stations.

The average carbon monoxide concentration levels measured at the subway stations are less than clean air criterion (.9ppm) and the average daily temperature of air exiting from ventilation stations is 21-27 degrees centigrade. This is 10 degrees lower than the average daily air temperature in Tehran in the hot months of July and August.

The average daily relative humidity of air exiting from ventilation stations is 40-50 % mainly due to the nonstop and proper operation of the subway ventilation system. This is 15 % more than the average daily relative humidity of Tehran.

The results also show that the air velocity at the ventilation systems is independent of the cityís air velocity changes.

This study shows that the ventilation system of Tehran subway can be considered as an appropriate system under normal conditions. It not only reduces the air pollution but also increases the quality of air around the subway stations.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2007, No.31

Determining the LC50 of Cobalt Chloride of

Cyprinus carpio


Tahereh Naji

Faculty of Pharmacy, Islamic Azad University

Shahrbanoo Oryan

Faculty of Science, Teacher Training University

Sara Karami

Faculty of Enrgy and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University


Keywords: cobalt chloride, Cyprinus carpio , LC50



In this study, the acute toxicity of the heavy metal of cobalt on Cyprinus carpio was determined in the laboratory of the Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, in 1384.

The experimental investigation took 96 hours using the O. E. C. D. guidelines. Fishes were divided randomly into eight groups of ten fishes each. The average length and weight of the fishes were 9Ī1.5cm and 10.125 Ī2.19 gr, respectively.

A group was chosen as the control group and seven groups were placed under concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 mg/Lit cobalt. All important physicochemical parameters of water including pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, temperature, and conductivity, total alkalinity, phosphate, nitrate and nitrite were measured. All the examinations were done with two replicants.The data were analized using probit analysis with software spss . The 96h LC50 values of cobalt chloride for Cyprinus carpio with two replicants were values of 328 and 327 mg/Lit,.respectively.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2007, No.31

The Effects of Temperature on Hatchability and Nutritional Value of Artemia urmianaís Nauplii


Lima Tayebi*

Jafar Seyfabadi*

Abdolhamid Abediyan*

*Faculty of Natural Resources & Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modarres University

Nasser Agh**

** Artemia & Aquatic Animals Center, Urmia, Iran


Key words: Artemia urmiana, temperature, hatchability, nutritional value



In this study, hatchability and nutritional value of Artemia urmianaís Nauplii, and the effects of temperature on these factors were evaluated. The experiments were conducted factorially with two levels of temperatures (25 and 30˚c ) in triplicate random groups. Hatchability of cysts at these temperatures were determined. To determine the biochemical composition of their body, Naupliies were hatched in five-liter bottles and harvested after 24 hours. Dry weight, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash, caloric content, and fatty acid compositions of Naupliiís were determined at these two temperatures. The individual dry weight and the individual biochemical composition of Nauplii were also determined.

The results showed that the hatching percentage and hatching efficiency increased with an increase in both temperature and time. For the hatching percentage, the increase was significant (p<0.05). The nutritional value of Naupliies decreased slightly at higher temperatures in most cases, but the change was not found significant (p>0.05).

Based on the results of the study, a temperature of 30˚c is recommended for cystsí hatching; at such a temperature, not only hatchability increases, but the nutritional value is also preserved.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2007, No.31

The Study of Cadmium, Zinc, Cupper, Iron and Nickel Concentration in Khoshk River (Shiraz) and

Some Products of the Neighboring Farms


Farshid Kafilzadeh

Mohammad Kargar

Elham Kadivar

Dept. of Microbiology, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch


Key words: pollution, heavy metals, Shiraz KhoshkRiver.



Khoshk River which flows through Shiraz and pours into Maharloo Lake is a seasonal river. Different types of wastewater (domestic, business, industrial, and agricultural wastewater) run into this river.

To examine the quality of the river's water and the pollution caused by heavy metals (Cadmium, Zinc, Copper, Iron and Nickel), six stations were established and samples were taken from the water in 2005. Also, in the spring of 2005, some samples were taken from the products of the nearby farms and the rate of heavy metals found in them was measured.

The average concentration of heavy metals in the river's water was compared with the maximum allowable figures for drinking water, surface waters, irrigation, and aquatic creatures, using a t-student test (with a confidence level of 95%).

The results showed that the water in station one (Moali Abad bridge) lacks heavy metals and is completely safe for any use. However, the water in the stations two (Namazi bridge), three (Parking bridge), four (Salman bridge), and five (Sharif Abad bridge) is not suitable for drinking, irrigation, and aquatic creatures, but it is safe as surface water. The water in station six (end of Kharchool) is not suitable for drinking and aquatic creatures, but it can be used for irrigation and is also safe as surface water.

Regarding the farming products, it can be said that some of them contain heavy metals but only the rate of copper in all the plants and iron in only one case was more than the maximum allowable figures.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2007, No.31

Hazards Identification and Assessment in a Production Factory Using Job Safety Analysis (JSA)


Parvin Nasiri*

Seyyed Shamseddin Alizadeh*

Farideh Golbabaee*

Seyyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri*

*Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Researches, Tehran University of Medical Sciences


Key words: JSA, hazard identification, risk assessment.



Occupational injuries and fatalities occur every day in workplaces. They often occur because employees are not trained on the proper job procedures. JSA, a consistent and systematic approach, can help identify and assess risks associated with hazardous job and develop control measures.

In this approach, jobs are broken down into theirs steps, potential hazards associated with each step are identified and assessed, and then proper control measures are recommended. This research was conducted in a production factory where 45 hazards were identified and assessed through JSA, of which 14 were high-risk, 28 moderate-risk and 3 low-risk hazards.

To remove or reduce the risks, certain control measures are recommended, among which training the workers and supervising their performance continuously are the most important ones.

J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2007, No.31

The Study of Environmental Issues of the New Town

Of Pardis and the Presentation of Managerial Approaches



Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

E-mail: moharamnejad@gmail.com

Mohsen Malvandi

Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

Key words: new town, environmental pollution, environmental, managerial 


Due to the absence of environmental assessment and the long and simultaneous construction and settlement activities of this town, the inhabitants confronted many difficulties including the following:


  1. shortage of water
  2. flow of the agricultural, industrial, and urban sewage into the natural channels of the region
  3. existence of some industries like alcohol and cement factories near the town, Tehran- Rudehen transit road passing by the town, and noise pollution caused by heavy-duty vehicles passing through this road
  4. soil erosion, physical destruction of the land, and soil contamination due to the sewage running into the channels
  5. lack of the necessary green space in the town.


In this study, in addition to investigating the existing environmental conditions, some management approaches are presented which can help remove the difficulties and prevent them in future.