The impact of land use changes on urban
Vegetation using remote sensing
[email protected]†† 0351 7212414
Key words: Urban environment, Land use changes, Vegetation cover, Remote sensing
In urban areas, overpopulation has turned many agricultural lands into residential, commercial and industrial ones. These changes have had such undesirable effects on urban environment as a decrease in vegetation and an increase in temperature. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of land use changes for the proper management of urban areas.
Remote sensing technique can provide good information about land use changes in a short time. It can also be used to study the past changes in land use to predict the future changes.
The main objective of this study was to develop a methodology for monitoring land use changes in urban areas using satellite data and remote sensing technique.
In a case study,
four cities in the
The results of this study indicate spatio-temporal changes of urban vegetation in the last decade.
The effect of turbochargers on CNG buses†††††††††††††††††††††††
†fuel consumption and emitted pollutants
Faculty of Environment, Science and
Research Branch, Islamic
Key Words: substitutional fuels, environment, turbocharger, emissions of transportation, CNG
scientific studies, vehicles contribute to almost 70 percent of emitted
pollutants, which is mainly due to the consumption of fossil fuels. Considering
the problems of air pollution and the environmental consequences caused by such
fuels as gas-oil and petrol consumed by public and private vehicles, the number
one priority of certain countries including
Environmental assessment of
Department of Environmental Health Engineering,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bijan Maghsoudlou Kamali
Department of Environmental Management, Graduate
Key Words: strategic environmental assessment (SEA), screening, policy, SWOT matrix††
investigation deals with the quality of capacity building and institutional
strengthening of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the industrial
field as well as determining the environmental strategies for industrial
sustainable development in
The study of wastewater treatment system efficiency of
Sahand dairy products factory,
Faculty of Environment,
Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic
Key Words: dairy wastewater, anaerobic and aerobic treatment, fixed bed treatment system††††† ††
The aim of this project is to study the wastewater treatment system of Sahand dairy products factory and to provide a solution for the problem. The existing wastewater treatment system in this factory is an anaerobic and aerobic system, where the aerobic system is an extended activated sludge.
This study had two phases as follows:
Phase One: This phase lasted from February 1, 2003 to September 1, 2004.
Based on the integrated sampling, the companyís wastewater was estimated to be approximately 100m3 per day. In this phase, the efficiency of anaerobic treatment system was investigated. The parameters measured in this study were BOD, COD, NO3, PO4, TS, OIL, and grease. After the samples were analyzed, the removal efficiency of the organic elements turned out to be low for the anaerobic system in winter.
Phase Two: This phase lasted from September 1, 2004 to December 29, 2004.
To increase the efficiency of the anaerobic system, a fixed-bed was installed. As a result of the improvement of the system, the following findings were obtained for the two years of 2003 and 2004:
- An increase in the BOD removal efficiency from 30% to 61.4%†
- An increase in the COD removal efficiency from 45% to 64.6%
- An increase in the NO3 removal efficiency from 58.5% 82.8%
- An increase in the TS removal efficiency from 63.8% to 67.9%
- For the PO4 removal efficiency, no significant difference was observed.
The results for the aerobic system after its improvement are as follows:
††††† -† †An increase in the BOD removal efficiency from 83% to 90.5%
††††† -† †An increase in the COD removal efficiency from 82.2% to 92.2%†††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††-† An increase in the TS removal efficiency from 72% to 80%
-† For the PO4 and the NO3 removal efficiency, no significant difference was observed.
The modeling of leached petroleum hydrocarbons
in water and soil resources
Key Words: modeling, petroleum hydrocarbons, soil and water resources, leaching††††
Due to the growing population and oil-dependent industries, the demand for oil products has risen. The increase in oil production, and consequently the higher consumption rate together with the careless use of oil products have aggravated the contamination of water and soil resources, which in turn has led to serious, and sometimes irreparable, harms to the environment.
The amount of the leached contaminants, the flow path, the contaminantsí traveling time in soil and water resources, and the concentration of pollutants in various depths are the main points the policy-makers need to determine.†
In this study, the researchers utilized a model called RITZ (Regulatory and Investigative Treatment Zone Model) to model the oil productsí leaching into the soil and groundwater resources. This model is used not only to evaluate the leaching process, but it also helps us to locate the contaminated zone and to measure the pollutantís concentration. For the calibration of the model, the output data from the RITZ model were compared with the laboratory data as reported in the previous studies. The obtained high correlations and the other results are shown in different tables and graphs.
The evaluation of health conditions of food supply and distribution centers in Bam after the earthquake
Gholam Reza Jahed Khaniki*
Amir Hossein Mahvi*
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Key Words: food supply centers,
environmental health, food safety, earthquake, city of
At 5:27 a.m. on Dec. 26, 2003, an
earthquake measuring 6.6 on the Richter scale struck the city of
This cross-sectional study was conducted in order to learn about the health conditions of the food supply and distribution centers after 9 months past the quake. To this end, a checklist and certain forms were prepared. The checklist included such parameters as the water supply system, sources of water, types of building, wastewater disposal condition, types of floor, air-conditioning and lighting conditions, screens, valid health cards, trash cans and disposal, the condition of water-closets and baths, refrigerators and freezers, cold rooms, and personnel. Using simple random selection techniques, 67 active shops were studied: 17 grocery stores, 13 fast-food places, 11 butcheries, 10 dairy shops, 7 chicken stores, 2 bakeries, 2 restaurants, 2 ice-cream shops, 2 food distribution centers, and 1 confectionary.† The results showed that 58.2% of these centers had piped water 7.5 % had water tanks, and 34.4 % were without a water system. Moreover, 52.2 % of food supply centers were made of bricks, 34.3 % were temporary conex containers, and 13.4 % were tents. Furthermore, 44.8 % of these places discharged their wastewater into ground wells and the remaining 55.2 % did not discharge their wastewater hygienically. The conditions of solid waste collection and disposal, water-closets and baths, freezers, and the personnel needed modification and improvement.
Minimization of sludge produced in wastewater
†treatment plants by activated sludge methods
Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri*
Omid Mirza Fashami*
*Faculty of Civil
Key Words: activated sludge, dissolved oxygen, sludge loading, biological floc, modeling, optimization.††††† ††
In the present world, in which all people force themselves to follow the environmental regulations, environmental assessment is necessary.†
For all big projects, there are some challenges in the field of wastewater treatment, specially the activated sludge system. These challenges are about the production and the disposal of excess sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants.
of sludge production in wastewater treatment plant with the activated sludge
system by the optimization of treatment parameters is the aim of the present
study. For this purpose, a pilot laboratory was installed in the civil
engineering department of
The results obtained form sampling and laboratory tests were noticeable: the excess sludge production reduced by raising the oxygen concentration in the mixed liquid. Also, a decrease in the loading of the sludge entering the aeration tank resulted in a decrease in the produced sludge. Finally, a mathematical model for the simulation of activated sludge flocs and the description of the effects of the above-mentioned parameters was developed.
Kyoto protocol, challenges and opportunities
Department of Environment, Energy Planning Bureau, Ministry of Energy
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
Energy Planning Bureau, Ministry of Energy
E-mail: [email protected]
Since 1992, the Convention of Climate
Change (UNFCCC) and the
The economy in
The Convention and the Protocol, the
economic and environmental models for
The effect of salt stress on some of the ecophysiolgic and biochemical properties of the pistacia mutica
Hamid Noorani Azad*
*Faculty of Biology, Islamic
Nour Addin Goodarzian
Faculty of Chemistry, Islamic Azad university,
Key Words: pistachio, salinity, protein, and sugar
In this study , the physiological and biochemical properties of the plant pistacia mutica were evaluated at six salinity levels (o, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM NaCl ) using a completely randomized design. The growth analysis, protein assey, and soluble sugars in the plantís organs and in the whole plant were also considered.
It was observed that scarification was necessary for seed germination.
The results show that as salinity increases, the length of the plant stem and the dry matter decrease, but the fresh matter and the length of the root increase. Salinity also increases the plantís proteins and sugars, the former being considered as an agent for adaptation and the latter for osmotic regulation against the stress conditions in the plant.
Comparing phenanthrene-degrading gram positive bacteria isolated from Noshahr and Amirabad coastal waters in terms of ecologic modification
Department of Microbiology, Islamic
Nour Amir Mozafari
Key Words: degrading bacteria, phenanthrene, PAHs bacillus, corynebacterium.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among important polluting compounds that contain Benzene rings in their molecular structure. They enter water ecosystems from a variety of sources such as Petrochemical industry, urban sewage, ships, oil spills, and the like. These compounds have been shown to have many harmful effects on humen beings, including cancer and other serious diseases. One of the effective methods of decreasing or eliminating PAHs contamination is through the use of degradading bacteria.
In this study,
phenanthren-degrading bacteria were isolated from southern
Identification of biosurfactant-producing Bacteria
and their use in the removal of oil pollutants
*Dept. of Microbiology, Islamic
Dept. of Microbiology,
Key Words: biosurfactant, emulsification, bioremediation, oil pollutants
†A vast variety of microorganisms secrete surface-active compounds, hence their name, biosurfactants. The secretion of these compounds by microbial cells facilitates the absorption of insoluble substrates. The most valuable application of biosurfactants is in petroleum industry where they are used for improving quality, facilitating extraction, and decreasing viscosity.
This study is aimed at the isolation and identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria and the assessment of their potential application in the removal of oil pollutants.
To this end, samples from 86 different sites including petroleum wells and sites polluted by oil compounds were selected. Then 158 strains of bacteria, 10 strains of actinomycetes, 9 strains of molds, and 2 strains of yeast were isolated from those sites. After that,† using emulsification tests, we studied emulsification capacity of the isolated strains. As the second step, we demonstrated biosurfactant secretion by the strains through measuring the surface tension. Finally, through measuring the surface tension, 9 bacteria strains were selected from the isolated strains, all of which caused a decrease higher than 20 dyn/cm2 in surface tension.† The induction effect of biosurfactant secretion in the isolated strains was also evaluated. Among the important features of the isolated strains, one is their high salt tolerance and their successful secretion of biosurfactants in a vast pH domain. In this way, the researchers could demonstrate the proper capacity of the strains in removing oil pollutants and their application in the microbial enhancement of oil recovery.
The effect of energy optimization methods
on polluting gases emitted from furnaces
Reza Marandi *†††††††††††† ††††††
Mir Esmaeil Masoumi *
of Engineering, Islamic
Faculty of Engineering,
Key Words: energy optimization, cracking, furnace
Furnace is the main consumer of energy in petrochemical and refinery processes. Its main use is in heat cracking and preheat process fluid. The increasing oil prices in the late 20th century led to the emergence of energy optimization methods.
In this paper, the effect of different optimization methods on the important environmental factor in furnaces, i. e., polluting gases caused by the combustion reaction, is studied.†
The main pollution factor in furnaces which burn sulfur-free gases is the reaction of matters and the production of NOx. After studying the analyses obtained from a sample furnace, certain methods were proposed for the optimization of energy and the reduction of environmental pollutants.
The results show that to optimize a furnace without using an NOx-reducing device the two methods of reducing the extra air and pre-heating the air, the extra air is reduced by 33% and 43%, respectively.††