J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2006, No.28


Effects of Cement Addition on Physical and Hydraulical properties of Unsaturated Kahrizak Clay Soil

(Used in Final Barrier Layer of Kahrizak Sanitary Landfill)

 

Taghi Ebadi,

Hamid khazaee

Abbas Soroush,

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amir Kabir University of Technology

 

Key words: barrier layer, final cover of sanitary landfills, physical properties and unsaturated hydraulic properties, effects of cement on clay

 

Abstract

One of the most important points in landfill construction is the design of the barrier layer of the final cover that prevents the surface water infiltration into the landfill and avoids excess of leachate generation. Knowing that the final cover is subjected to wetting and drying frequently, generation of cracks and pores is unavoidable. In macroscopic scale, these cracks increase the permeability. In this research, kahrizak clay soil (soil of landfill site of Tehran), has been selected and its characteristics such as swelling, plasticity, shrinkage and unsaturated permeability and the effects of cement on these characteristics were studied. The results in general, show that the unsaturated permeability increases as the cement percentage increases. Also the comparison between the results of the test on different clay-cement samples, confirms the least permeability for the sample with 3% cement. Other Results show that PI (plasticity index) decreases as the cement percentage increases but the new PI is in the acceptable limitation to reach the least permeability [2]. The results also show that swelling and shrinkage decrease as the cement percentage increases. Finally it can be concluded that although the addition of cement does not decrease the unsaturated permeability, but it has significantly reduced crack generation, condensation and erosion. It should be noted that the unsaturated permeability value remains under the limit value. Thus it's recommended to add 3 percent of cement to kahrizak clay soil to improve and optimize its properties to be used in the barrier layer.

**





J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2006, No.28


Determination of insectides residues commonly used (endosulfan and phosalon) for controlling Colorado potato beetle).

 

 

Fatemeh Nasehi*

Department of Agronomy and plant breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ardabil Azad University

Ghadir Nouri Ghanbalani**

Department of Agronomy and plant breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Mohabhegh University

Mohammad Zaeefizadeh*

Hossin Shahbazi**

 

Key words: potato, phosalon, endosulfan, environmental and remainder

 

Abstract

Many insecticides are used to control pests in long among in our country every year, that they can pollute environment an agricultural products severely. Organophosphates with high toxicity and organochlorines with their long stability in the environment are important Pesticides. These Pesticides absorb to the products or environment directly and indirectly and they can inter in to food chain easily. Measuring the concentration of these pesticides residues in the agricultural products and comparing them with standard limits, Will help us to manage their use correctly. In this experiment the residues concentration of endosulfan and phosalon (two insecticides commonly used for controlling Colorado potato beetle) determined in relation to dosage and time. Method included three stages: sampling, extraction and concentration and analysis. Analysis was done by GC and ECD and FTD   detectors. The results showed that with applied concentration in the experiment, Although the residual of phosalon was higher than Endosulfan , their level was lower than international standard limits and also the different doses and time on their residues. Sampling with one manate interval showed that the insecticides residues have decreased about 0.008 ppm in this period of time.                       

 

***





J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2006, No.28


Analyzing the Traffic & Environmental Effects of the Actuated Traffic Signals and Regular Traffic Signals at the Intersections

 

* Mansour Haji Hosseinlou,

Assistant Professor of K. N. Toosi University of Technology,

Ali Reza Goudarzi
Farzad Fereydoun Zadeh

Civil EngineerToosi University of Technology

 

Key words: traffic signals, intelligent control of traffic, SCATS system, travel time, delay time, stopping at the intersection, environment, air pollution.

 

Abstract

SCATS system is one of the intelligent systems of controlling traffic, which is used by the central computerized system and by receiving information from the detectors, issues instructions for scheduled signals at the intersections. This system has been used in many large cities of the world and also Tehran. The aim of this report is submitting a method for evaluating the efficiency of this system in Tehran. Up to this date, in different cities with different methods, the operations of the transportation network of the cities before and after the installation of SCATS system has been compared. For the evaluation, different parameters such as traveling time or delay time and stopping at the intersections have been used. Obtaining statistics have been done by cars and the three intersections of Sohrevardi in Tehran have been tested and counted. These statistics have been consisted from the travel time at the road and also the average delay time at the entrances of each intersection, which have been taken before and after the installation of the intelligent system of SCATS. The preliminary results show that by the installation of SCATS system, the traveling time has been decreased by 4 to 37 percent. Also the average delay for each vehicle at the peak hours of the morning at the intersection of Sohrevardi/Keyhan has been decreased by 38 percent and at two intersections of Sohrevardi/Motahari and Sohrevardi/Beheshti has been increased by 37 and 1 percent respectively. In regular hours, at all three intersections there has been between 11 to 37 percent decrease in delay time. In the peak hours of the evening between less than 1 up to 42 percent decrease in the delay time has been observed. As there is a direct relation between the amount of smooth traffic and the travel time with the amount of air pollution in the traffic network, in the continuation of the present research, by considering the change of travel time between the two situations of intelligent and regular it is tried to gain statistics regarding the decrease in the amount of the different contaminations in one cycle of movement on the route. It can show the effects of the environmental use of actuated signals at the intersections. As when the signals are intelligent in these three intersections and for passing from one short route of 786 meters, 751 kilograms from the different contaminations such as monoxide carbon and metan have been decreased. In order to gain the final conclusion in case of the operations of the SCATS system it is proposed to implement these statistics in the other networks.





J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2006, No.28


Elaboration of management methods for sustainable development of

Environmental education for young generation

 
 
Nasser Moharamnejad

E-mail: moharamnejad@gmail.com

Omran Heidary

Faculty of the Environment and Energy, Science and Research Campus, Islamic Azad University

 

Keywords: Environmental education, Sustainable development, Young generation

 

Abstract
Environmental education is original method for environment conservation. The aims of environmental education is increasing knowledge and creating sensitivity in individuals towards alteration made by physical, economic, biological, sociological and political events, upon the environment. Therefore having identified of environment problems, individuals can create their own ways of solving environmental difficulties.

Environmental management should undoubtedly attempt to enhance people (especially young generation) knowledge and awareness with a real sense of environmental commitment as an obvious goal.

Environmental management must execute 8 methods (8 steps) for sustainable development of environmental education for young generation in country, are containing:

 

Step1: Recognition goals of environmental education

Step2: Collection of practicable strategies

Step3: Analysis of goals and strategies (Priorities appointment)

Step4: Supply and regulation of subject matter of educational program

Step5: To make available of facilities and tools

Step6: Execution of educational course

Step7: Evaluation of educational course

Step8: Review in environmental education courses (Improvement of the plan)





J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2006, No.28


Potential Economic Instruments for the Control of Environmental Pollution in Iran: An Emphasis on Water Resources

 

                                                                                                                    

Kourosh Hakimpour

Instructor of Faculty of Industrial Safety and Health, Tehran, Iran.

 

Keywords: Economic instruments, Environmental pollination control, Water resources, Effluent Charges, Green Tax, Tradable emission Quotes

 

Abstract

Today, the application of economic instruments for the control of water pollution is being increasingly developed in many countries. However, these instruments themselves are not efficient enough. While most governments are primarily concentrated on legal aspects of water pollution control, the application of legal as well as economic instruments will lead to enhance environmental management. The main objectives of this research are:

The biggest challenge in the environmental management of Iran is the inability to implement regulations properly. Furthermore, a lack of strategic planning, sufficient information and a reliable database has intensified this situation. Therefore, it is recommended that the DOE focus on the establishment of specific task forces known as “Environmental Police” under the supervision of the National police. The establishment of these forces with the mission of protecting the environment within the “4th Development Plan” will be a turning point in the national environmental management resulting in a more appropriate and sustainable environment.

This study focused on economic instruments initiated since the “3rd Development Plan” for the control of environmental pollution. Previous investigations have indicated that the implementation of penalties for polluters is a very slow process, while the degree of pollution throughout the country is growing rapidly. Unfortunately, current activities have not been sufficient in minimizing such environmental impacts.

In summary, it has been proposed that the DOE revise its institutional framework rapidly, not only by implementing a variety of legal and economic instruments simultaneously in the water basins, by also by legalizing the establishment of the afore-mentioned task forces.





J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2006, No.28


Corrosion and Scaling Analysis in Water Supply and Distribution System in Zanjan

 

Amir Hossein Mahvi

 

 

Akbar Eslami

 

F.Mohebbi

 

 

Key words: Distribution system, corrosion, scaling

 

Abstract

     Water is essential for living and it should be in proper quantity and quality. One of the parameters that is considered in water quality assessment is corrosion and scaling condition. Corrosion can cause destruction of that part of metal which is in contrast of water and in contrast scaling can cause formation of scales in piping system and will reduce water transfer capacity. In this research, Zanjan water supply and distribution system has been studied from corrosion and scaling point if view. 127 samples from water wells, water storage and distribution system were taken three seasons; fall, winter and spring. All samples were taken by grab. For determination of Langelier and Rizener indices parameters such as temperature, pH, Alkalinity, Calcium hardness and conductivity where examined. Results show that the averages of Langelier and Rizener indices for the city of Zanjan are -0.08 and 7.27 respectively. The results indicate that 53.51 percent of samples were corrosive and the 45.7 percent will form scale, the rest of samples were neutral.





J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2006, No.28


Removal of Heavy Metals (Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(VI))From Aqueous Solution By Using Adsorbent By Activated Agricultural Solid Waste (Ricehull, Wheat Husk, Straw)

 

M. Nikazar

Department of chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran (Center of excellency petrochemical engineering)

Navid Nourbakhsh

Islamic Azad University-Tehran North Branch

Navid-Nourbakhsh@yahoo.com

 

Key words: Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, Adsorption isotherms, Rice Hull, Wheat Husk, Straw, Wastewater, Agricultural Waste.

 

 

Abstract

     The contamination of water by toxic metals is worldwide problem. In this study removal of the heavy metals Cd2+, Pb2+, Cr6+ from aqueous solution was studied by using activated carbon prepared from Rice Hull, Wheat Husk and Straw.

Batch and column experiments were performed. Batch studies conformed to freundlich and langmuir adsorption isotherms. The values of constants for the isotherms were found. Column study conformed to the optimum adsorption in various pH, temperature concentration.

Experiments showed that Cd2+, Pb2+, Cr6+ adsorption increased with increasing pH and decreased with increasing the temperature and concentration of solutions.





J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2006, No.28


Special Attention on Medical Waste Management

in Non-University Hospitals of Rasht City

 

Seyed Davoud Ashrafi

Ghasem Ali Omrani

Ramin Nabizadeh

School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

 

Key words: Solid waste, Hospital waste management, Rasht city

 

Abstract

Hospital wastes contain large amounts of hazardous wastes, which are all considered to be deleterious to human health, plants, animals and the environment. This investigation was carried out to determine the quantity of waste generated in private hospitals of Rasht city in order to find out the drawbacks and distinctions of hospital management policies and to offer recommendations for its improvement. In this regard, 4 hospitals were selected randomly from total of 6 private hospitals, and the data required were then gathered by two methodologies.

First, a questionnaire was designed to gain the required information for statistical analysis. Second, a field study was carried out in the selected hospitals to quantify the wastes generated in 6 days of winter and 6 days of summer.

Results indicated that the total amount of generated wastes (total mean values) by these hospitals was 1197.19 kg per day; they are composed of 34.68 % infectious waste, 63.18% domestic wastes, 1.12 % sharp wastes and 1.02 % pathologic wastes. The value of per capita is calculated to be 3.142 kg per bed and 4.482 kg per patient. Considering the enormous kinds and volume of these wastes especially infectious wastes, it should be noted that continuous and precise surveillance over hospital management is a necessary task for safety of patients, personal and all the public. 

 

×××××





J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2006, No.28


Application of E-Commerce in Energy Consumption Optimization and Pollution Reduction

 

 Abdol- Reza. Karbassi

karbassi@iranenergy.org.ir

Shohreh . Mastorea Tehrani

Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Campus, Tehran, Iran

 

 

Key Words: E-Commerce, Energy, Pollution, Environment, Transportation.

 

Abstract

Maintaining the energy growing demand for achieving better welfare is the biggest defiance that the governments in developed and developing countries are facing to. Social costs, excessive consumption of energy, especially in transportation have been increased to such an extend that many countries are facing to political and social intricate. On the other hand, the trend of environmental pollution growth such as global warming as the cause of green house gas emission is among the subjects that the modern civilization is challenging. In order to eliminate the mentioned problems, there is no other remedy rather than reduction in energy consumption and reduction of urban and industrial pollutions. With this respect acquiring values increase’s policies which results welfare reduction, or the modern electronic commerce systems (E-Commerce), which eliminate the excessive consumption. With no doubt, energy consumption and pollution reduction will be diminished in such a significant way that people’s welfare would not be reduced. This Policy is more acceptable by the policy makers and people. Statistics about E-commerce indicates that only in IBM Company a massive reduction in energy use caused CO2 emission to be reduced by 35 million tons. Using empty spaces in trucks with making use of internet, publishing all kinds of electronic books and journals, electronic shopping, gas, telephone bills payment are the means of E-commerce, which are applicable in short time, which cause massive economical savings. In this regard, training and informing the society for a better recognition of E-commerce effectiveness in environmental pollution reduction and GDP growth are necessary. In this regard, government as the policy maker must be pioneer to introduce a model of E-commerce especially in urban transportation section for mega city of Tehran, where is now facing with the above mentioned problems.





J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2006, No.28


Isolation of Cadmium Eliminating Microorganisms from Western Coasts of Bandar Abbas

 

 

Farshid kafilzadeh

 Biology Department Islamic Azad university , Jahrom Branch , P.O.Box : 74135-355 Jahrom , Iran .

Mohammad Reza Jamali

Jahrom Protection Environmentalism office ; Jahrom , Iran .

Mohammad Reza Razavi Deligani

Pastor Institute , Parasitology part ; Tehran , Iran .

 

Keywords : Cadmium , Bacterium , Marine pollution 

 

Abstract

One of the best strategies for elimination of heavy metals from the factories sewage is usage of live or dead microorganisms . The resistant microorganisms of polluted natural habitates are suitable for this purpose . Development of industrial activities and factories sewages efflux in the west of Bandar Abas ( in the south of Iran ) have polluted the coasts of this area to Cadmium . In this study , the samples were gathered from surface sediments of nine stations of nine stations in three transects on the coastline . Pseudomonas.sp . E. coli and Citrobacter sp ; were isolated from the sediments . Growth kinetic of these baeteria in medium containing 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 and 3 milimolar Cadmium was similar to growth kinetic of bacteria in standard conditions . The capabilities of these baeteria in elimination of Cadmium from solution containing 100 miligram per liter Cadmium nitrate were between 23 to 66.5 percent . Cadmium elimination capability of these resistant strains isolated from polluted sediments suggests the possible usage of these isolates to eliminate Cadmium pollution in the polluted areas.





J.Env.Sci. Tech., Spring 2006, No.28


Application of E-Commerce in Energy Consumption Optimization

and Pollution Reduction

 

* Abdol. Reza  Karbassi

Shohreh  Mastoreh. Tehrani

 

*Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Campus, Tehran, Iran

Corresponding Author, E-mail: karbassi@iranenergy.org.ir

 

 

 

Key Words: E-Commerce, Energy, Pollution, Environment, Transportation.

 

 

Abstract

        Maintaining the energy growing demand for achieving better welfare is the biggest defiance that the governments in developed and developing countries are facing to. Social costs, excessive consumption of energy, especially in transportation have been increased to such an extend that many countries are facing to political and social intricate. On the other hand, the trend of environmental pollution growth such as global warming as the cause of green house gas emission is among the subjects that the modern civilization is challenging. In order to eliminate the mentioned problems, there is no other remedy rather than reduction in energy consumption and reduction of urban and industrial pollutions. With this respect acquiring values increase’s policies which results welfare reduction, or the modern electronic commerce systems (E-Commerce), which eliminate the excessive consumption. With no doubt, energy consumption and pollution reduction will be diminished in such a significant way that people’s welfare would not be reduced. This Policy is more acceptable by the policy makers and people. Statistics about E-commerce indicates that only in IBM Company a massive reduction in energy use caused CO2 emission to be reduced by 35 million tons. Using empty spaces in trucks with making use of internet, publishing all kinds of electronic books and journals, electronic shopping, gas, telephone bills payment are the means of E-commerce, which are applicable in short time, which cause massive economical savings. In this regard, training and informing the society for a better recognition of E-commerce effectiveness in environmental pollution reduction and GDP growth are necessary. In this regard, government as the policy maker must be pioneer to introduce a model of E-commerce especially in urban transportation section for mega city of Tehran, where is now facing with the above mentioned problems.