J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2005, No.23




Feasibility Study of PET Bottle Recycling in Order to Produce Unsaturated Polyester Resin.

GhasemAli Omrani

School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research Tehran University of Medical Science

Manochehr Vosoughie

Roya Gholami mafie

Collage of environment, Science & Research Campus, Islamic Azad University






Post-consumer waste poly (ethylene terephthalate), PET, scraps were glycolyzed at different reaction times and different weight ratios of 37.5 to 62.5% PET by using propylene glycol, PG. It was shown that the effect of catalyst presence is significant upon the acceleraion of depolymerization. Two grades of virgin and waste PET was used to compare the depolymerization behaviour by using PG, which showed the exact similarity. The free glycol of the resulted glyco-esters was removed. FTIR, GPC and DSC techniques were used to characterize the glycolization products, and hydroxyl value determination was used to specify the extent of the reaction. The results showed that the some PET chains have been broken down and hydroxyl-terminated end gropus have been formed on the oligomeric chains.

A relative decrease in molecular weight and viscosity at same PET concentrations by increasing the reaction time indicated that the PET chains have been broken  The results of free glycol removal and hydroxyl value tests confirmed that  about 12 to 25% of PG have been used up to break the PET chains.

The resulted oligomeric glycolizates can be readily used in formulation of unsaturated resins and specific types of polyurethanes.


J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2005, No.23




Simulation of Thermal Stratification in Urban Man–Made Lakes



Jafar Nouri

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health,

University of Tehran Medical Sciences, P.O.B. 14155-6446,Tehran, Iran

Hamid  Rahimipour

Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Center, Tehran, Iran

Roya Nezakati

Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


Keywords: man-made lake, water resources, water quality, thermal stratification



Chitgar artificial lake, located in urban District – 22 Municipality of Tehran northwest of Tehran, is by volume l0 MCM,by depth average 10m and by area 225 ha as the Iran’s largest man- made lake. The most important water resources of district, which can support the lake water, are Kan River, municipal runoff, the middle part watersheds runoff and the treated wastewater of urban region. In this study the way to take water from each resource individually or some of them together have been discussed and twelve different choices of resources to maintain the lake water have been introduced. Thermal stratification is one of the most important parameters that can affect the lake water quality after construction in  regard to Tehran climatic conditions. In this research WQRRS model has been run to every 12 aforementioned choices individually to predict the probable thermal stratification in the lake for each one. This simulation has been done during a five- year period, which is assumed to be a typical period of time in this study. The needed input data to run the model are quality factors, meteorological data, and geometrical characterticas of the reservoir, the characteristics of inflow and also the needed coefficients for the model.  These data have been collected from hydrometic and meteorological stations of the region and also the results of other researches. After running the model the simulation results show that the Kan River, as one of the proposed water resources, has the least difficulties in thermal stratification.


J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2004, No.23


Effects of Application Trichlorfon Toxin With Different Concentrations on Growth of Larvae and Fry
of Caspian Kutum, Rutilus Frisii Kutum



Nasrin Chobkar

Hosein Emadi

Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch

Hosein Negarestan

Iranian Fisheries Research Organization


Keywords: Tocin, Trichlorfon, Kutum, Caspian Sea, Concentration, Time, Growth



The research aims to investigate effects of application of trichlorfon toxin on different treatments with concentrations of the obsectine of this study was to investigate the effects of applicational trichlosfon toxin on different treatments using concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 ppm. Also effects of introduction of fish larvae in different times after toxin spraying (24, 48 and 72 hours) on growth of the larvae and fry also studied .

Vase incubators were used for three days larvae of Kutum. The experiment was conducted without use of flowing water. The results were tested statically using analysis of variance.

A second set of experiments were run after vase experiment to look at the effects of trichlorfon on fish fry growth. The fries were placed in separate net copartments in earth ponds to grow.

The statistical results of pond experiment showed that in the beginning of the period, trichlorfon toxin decreased growth of fish, Then growth was normal. Towards the end of the experiment, lower growth was observed in treatments having toxin with higher concentration of the toxin.

Also statistical difference was significant for growth, as when the fish larvae were introduced into ponds after 72 hours after spraying, best growth was observed.


J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2005, No.23

Estimating maximum daily temperature using NOAA satellite images- Case study in Oroomieh lake basin




Ali Rahimi Khoob*

 Mahdi Kouchak Zade*

  Foroud Sharifi

 Institute of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management 

 Jamal Mohammad Vali Samani

 *Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tarbiat   Modarres, Tehran



Keywords: Air temperature, NOAA satellite, Regression model, Land surface temperature, Oroomieh



Air temperature, as measured at standard meteorological stations, is an important climatologically variable and since these stations are collected as point samples, their data are not applicable for regional purposes. Therefore these data are necessary to be converted or modified to a regional data. Land surface temperature and vegetation index have the most correlation with air temperature and can be estimated by satellite images. Thus, for retrieving air temperature at regional scale regression models have been used where the input variables are land surface temperature and vegetation index. In this study three regression models; linear ordinary, linear multiple and non-linear multiple in estimating maximum air temperature are used and compared. In multiple regression models, in addition to variables mentioned above, also geographic variables used as model inputs. Land surface temperature and normalized deference vegetation index (NDVI) has been estimated using NOAA satellite images. The results show that non-linear multiple regression model has the highest precision among the models where the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) estimated are equal to 1.57°C and 1.3°C, respectively.


J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2005, No.23



Emulsion and Sorption Oil Spills by Expanded Perlite types: A0,




Afshar Alihossini

Dariush Bastani

Department of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Azad University

Ali Akbar Seifkordi

Department of Chemical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology



Key words: Adsorption; Spill Oil; Sorption kinetic; Perlite; Emulsion



In this study; four types of expanded perlites (A0, A1, AH, A2) were used to sorption oil spill. These four types are different on their porous space, expansion ability and special surface area. The tests were done in laboratory bench scale and in static and dynamic models. Experiments show that perlite is spread on oil spill rapidly and

is floated on the surface of oil spill because of its low weight (40-200 kg/m^3)

and high porous space. According to kinetic study sorption of oil spill is took place in the initiation of spreading of perlite on oil spill. One of the perlite types, A0, is clotted during sorption of oil spill and in this situation is removed from the surface of water easily. A0 sorption capacity is 7ml oil/1gr perlite. A0 can emulsify oil spill that is 25 times heavier than its own weight, so that microorganisms can degrade it readily.


J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2005, No.23



A Scientific Report about Bats in Qeshm Island




Hossein Zohuri

College of Environment, Science and Research campus Islamic Azad University

Mahmoode Karami

Faculty of National Resources, University of Tehran, Karadj

Mozafar Sharefi

Faculty of Science, University of Razi, Kermanshah


Keywords: Bat, Fruit Bat, Qeshm Island



A study was conducted to determine species diversity and distribution of bats in Qeshm island ,Persian golf, from autumn 1999 to spring 2002. The roosting areas were identified and bats were captured by different means such as mist net and fishing nets set up by the locale people to protect the palm fruits against the fruit bats .

Identification of the bat species were done by morphometric and cranial measurements. Five species of bats were identified ; one frugivore (Rousettus aegyptiacus ) and four insectivores ;


Rhinopoma    muscatellum

Taphozus       perforatus

Asellia           tridens

Pipistrellus   pipistrellus


Although the existence of fruit bat had been reported so many years ago, the fruit bat ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ) was captured in this study for the first time vy the authors . No insectivore bat was reported before from Qeshm  island .This was the first report of the 4 insectivorous bats in Qeshm .

Based on statistical analysis, Pipistrellus pipistrellus should to have intrapopulation variation.


J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2005, No.23



Biosorption of Azo dyes reactive Red from Industrial Infusion by dried activated sludge



Reza Marandi*

Tahereh Valizadeh

Faculty of chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Shomal

Morteza Kashefiasl*

*Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Shomal



Keywords: Azo dye, Active Sludge, Biological Absorbance, Lang Muir, Freundlish Isotherms



Absorption of active dyes with Azo base (Active Red) is made by passing from dried active sludge. During performed tests, which was with changing of initial pH-gram of adsorbent matter –changing in shaker speed and initial dye concentration as well as investigation of kinetic changes and their effects on absorption rute show that equilibrium models follow from detailed equation of Freundlish & Longmuir well.the highest percent of absorption which obtained in these testes for the color of active red in concentration of 40 mg/lit is equal to 61.12% with absorbed gram 2.5 in pH=2. 

Adsorption stage of Azo dyes follows the second-degree kinetics and it was specified that the capacity of adsorption is relatively high. (pH<6)

The high correlation coefficient, R>0.989, showed that this method is suitable.

The adsorption method was used for absorbance of dyes the bucteries in the sludge were subject to growth, then it was dried for 24 hours fewer than 60º c.


J.Env.Sci. Tech., Winter 2005,  No.23


A Survey of Wastewater Quality and Quantity in the Food and Pharmaceutical Industries of Tehran


Amir Hossein Mahvi , Simin Nasseri*

*Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health Institut of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Mohammad Mossaferi

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

Mostafa  Hosseini

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health Institut of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences


 Key Words: Wastewater,Food,Pharmaceutical Industries,Tehran,Quantity, Quality   



Considering importance of industrial wastewater and related environmental pollutions, this study was carried out to evaluate quantity and quality of wastewater of 20 food and pharmaceutical factories among 77 industries (comprise totally 20.3% of industries). For quantitative evaluation, consumed water and generated wastewater and for qualitative evaluation BOD5 and TSS were studied. The results showed that 20 Studied food and pharmaceutical factories consume 7,876,346 m3 water annually, of Which 25 – 95% with average 69% was converted to wastewater and the total annual rate of wastewater produced in both types of industries was 5,454,154m3. It is estimated that annual water consumption and wastewater generation for all of food and pharmaceutical industries of Tehran is 10.33 million m3 and 7.5 million m3, respectively. Considering water consumption, oil manufacturing, beverage, dairy and pharmaceutical industries with consumption of 36.3%, 29.3%, 14.2% and 7.14% of total volume, rank 1st to 4th, respectively. In the case of wastewater generation, beverage, oil manufacturing, dairy and pharmaceutical industries with generation of 34%, 30.31%, 14.44% and 5.66% of total volume, rank 1st to 4th respectively. The most pollutant wastewater regarding to organic material is alcohol industry with BOD5 = 44000 mg/l. Average of BOD5 for studied industries regardless of alcohol industry was 558 mg/l. During the study, 60% of studied industries had not wastewater treatment plant (WTP) and only 10% (2 units), had WTP with good performance. In 30% of industrial units the performance of WTP were poor or without any efficiency.  A great volume of industrial effluents with high pollution potential is discharged into rivers or wells of the region, which would result pollution of the region.