The Ecological Effects using Tritium Fuel in Nuclear Fusion
Nowadays, nuclear fusion reaction taken place in systems as fusion Reactors, are the base of a lot of widespread researches to achievement a new source of energy. Although using these kind of reactors is very beneficial, the optimum usage of them requires sever attention to their effects on human being and his environment. It is shown that the best fuel for fusion reactors is tritium. Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with 12.32-year half-life that emits beta radiation. Although its specific activity is relatively weak because of its gaseous state, it can leak easily Its ecological effects should be considered . In all around the world, in order to improving safety and reliability of these reactors, researcher groups expandedly investigate radiation hazards resulting from release of tritium and activation products during normal operations as well as accidental conditions. Some of the most significant results and safety aspects are briefly presented in this paper.
Mohammad Reza Sabour
The sources of hospital wast were studied. The main types of hospital waste have been recognized. The amount of hospital waste in each category: Chemical biological … was estimated for all province as well as the cities in the country. The results show that if the separation of the hospital wast carry out according to the standards, the amount will be estimated 139787 and 698877 tons until the year 2008 and 2028, respectively.
Sayyed Amir Naser Harati
E-mail : Harati@yahoo.com
Getting 5.7% growth in the economy has been one of the most important objectives that the government of I.R.Iran was following during the 3rd 5 years development plan. Each year energy is consumed more than the last year and the price of oil and gas energy is usually less than the real prices. In this study the importance of increasing energy prices was investigated. Increasing energy prices have some influences on economic and social issues, especially on environment. For development of energy, the experts have recommended 4 methods. All methods were analyzed and assessed social, economical and environmental impacts. Field surveys also have been done by direct interviews. The results showed that many people believed that the increases in fossil fuel prices cause inflation, but the negative impacts may be controled. Advantages and disadvantages of each recommended method has been discussed
Faculty of Environment,
Science & Research campus, Islamic
Sayyed Mahmood Shariat
Mahmood Ali Mohammadi
tertiary – butyl ether (MTBE) is the most common fuel oxygenate and octane
booster currently used in unleaded gasoline in
Besides the above advantages, the water solubility of MTBE is so high, therefore it has high mobility downward in soil because it dose not readily adsorb or attach on soil. It is readily soluble in water it can reach ground water quickly and easily.
The main contributors of gasoline containing MTBE into the subsurface environment of soil are underground storage tanks (UST) , pipelines and refueling facilities.
The drinking water sources Polluted by an undesirable taste and odors when it’s concentration range between 20-40ppb. In this case high clean up costs is needed for remediation.
this project MTBE was detected in soil and water sources around gasoline pump
All the samples were collected from wells near the pump stations, 2 samples from surface water and 2 samples from soil was accordance to determine the concentration of MTBE on surface.
The analyzing method in this project purge & Trap
/ GC / MS Method, which was recommended by USEPA in 2001 for analyzing soil and
water samples. The high detectable Concentration of MTBE belonged to samples,
which were collected from wells next to huge storage tanks of
They were about 0.94ppm and 0.34 ppm.
There were no detectable MTBE in soil samples because after leakage it tends to migrate downward the soil.
Laboratory duplicates and field duplicates were done for two samples to give a measure of the precision associated with laboratory procedures and sample collection and preserving.
The concentration of MTBE in two samples of surface water were 11ppb and 6 ppb . The reason may be due to MTBE spills from repair shops or it is because of used motor oil which spills to the surface water.
Determination of Mathematical Model for Distribution of
Dissolved Oxygen in Activated Sludge System
Sayyed Ahmad Mirbagheri
The objective aim of this research was to predict dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a full scale activated sludge reactor. So tested a function for oxygen transfer.
The activated sludge model No.1 was used to describe the biochemical processes.The function of dissolved Oxygen was used by first- order differential equations. This model was simulated by MATLAB Software. The simulated model was tested for a laboratory pilot and shahrak Ghods treatment plant. The obtained results confirmed the data obtained from the model and the experimental one.
J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2004, No.22
Environmental Health Engineering , School of Public Health and Institute of
Public Health Research , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , P.O.B.
to the natural and man-made environment of Tehran and based on government
approval, the largest artificial lake located in far northwest of great Tehran
and into the new made District-22 of Tehran Municipality is being designed.
This region with and area of about 10000 hectares has been planned as a last
connatural limitation of