J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2004, No.22




The Ecological Effects using Tritium Fuel in Nuclear Fusion



Elahe Alizadeh

Fusion Researches Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Post- Box 14155-1339

E-mail: Ealizadeh @ aeoi.org.ir


Keywords: nuclear fusion, tritium fuel, radioactive waste.



Nowadays, nuclear fusion reaction taken place in systems as fusion Reactors, are the base of a lot of widespread researches to achievement a new source of energy. Although  using these kind of reactors is very beneficial, the optimum usage of them requires sever attention to their effects on human being and his environment. It is shown that the best fuel for fusion reactors is tritium. Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with 12.32-year half-life that emits beta radiation. Although its specific activity is relatively weak because of its gaseous state, it can leak easily Its ecological effects should be considered . In all around the world, in order to improving safety and reliability of these reactors, researcher groups expandedly investigate  radiation hazards resulting from release of tritium and activation products during normal operations as well as accidental conditions. Some of the most significant results and safety aspects are briefly  presented in this paper.



J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2004, No.22




Study and Analyze of Infectious Hospital waste In Iran



Mohammad Reza Sabour

Amir Mohamedifard

Civil and Environmental Engineering, Khajeh Nasir.Toosi University of Technology, Tehran


Keywords: Hazardous waste, Physical, Analysis, Infectious analysis



The sources of hospital wast were studied. The main types of hospital waste have been recognized. The amount of hospital waste in each category: Chemical biological … was estimated for all province as well as the cities in the country. The results show that if the separation of the hospital wast carry out according to the standards, the amount will be estimated 139787 and 698877 tons until the year 2008 and 2028, respectively.


J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2004, No.22


Analysis of Fuel Pricing and Its Effects on Social, Economical And Environmental Issues



Majid Shafipoor

Sayyed Amir Naser Harati

Rashid Kaveh

Environment Department of Khageh Nassir Toosi University of Technology, Tehran

E-mail : [email protected]


Keywords: Petrol, Economic Adjustment, Petrol Consumption, Environmental Impacts, Energy Price, Economy of Iran.



Getting 5.7% growth in the economy has been one of the most important objectives that the government of I.R.Iran was following during the 3rd 5 years development plan. Each year energy is consumed more than the last year and the price of oil and gas energy is usually less than the real prices. In this study the importance of increasing energy prices was investigated. Increasing energy prices have some influences on economic and social issues, especially on environment. For development of energy, the experts have recommended 4 methods. All methods were analyzed and assessed social, economical and environmental impacts. Field surveys also have been done by direct interviews. The results showed that many people believed that the increases in fossil fuel prices cause inflation, but the negative impacts may be controled. Advantages and disadvantages of each recommended method has been discussed


J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2004, No.22
Determination of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether)MTBE) In Water & Soil Around Gasoline Pump Station In Tehran



Elham Ardalani  

Faculty of Environment, Science & Research campus, Islamic Azad University

Sayyed Mahmood Shariat

Mahmood Ali Mohammadi

School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research
Mohammad Ali Vafazadeh

 Iranian Company of  Refinery and Distribution of Petrol Products



Keywords: Underground waters, Methyl tertiary Butyl Ether, MTBE, Soil, Gasoline Pump station



Methyl tertiary – butyl ether (MTBE) is the most common fuel oxygenate and octane booster currently used in unleaded gasoline in Tehran. It can be easily and cheaply produced at the refinery. Mixing of 5-15 percent of this compound can make a significant decrease in reduction of air pollutant such as CO, NOx, … .

Besides the above advantages, the water solubility of MTBE is so high, therefore it has high mobility downward in soil because it dose not readily adsorb or attach on soil. It is readily soluble in water it can reach ground water quickly and easily.

The main contributors of gasoline containing MTBE into the subsurface environment of soil are underground storage tanks (UST) , pipelines and refueling facilities.

The drinking water sources Polluted by an undesirable taste and odors when it’s concentration range between 20-40ppb. In this case high clean up costs is needed for remediation.

In this project MTBE was detected in soil and water sources around gasoline pump stations in Tehran.

All the samples were collected from wells near the pump stations, 2 samples from surface water and 2 samples from soil was accordance to determine the concentration of MTBE on surface.

The analyzing method in this project purge & Trap / GC / MS Method, which was recommended by USEPA in 2001 for analyzing soil and water samples. The high detectable Concentration of MTBE belonged to samples, which were collected from wells next to huge storage tanks of Tehran refinery, and Rey instalation.

They were about 0.94ppm and 0.34 ppm.

There were no detectable MTBE in soil samples because after leakage it tends to migrate downward the soil.

Laboratory duplicates and field duplicates were done for two samples to give a measure of the precision associated with laboratory procedures and sample collection and preserving.

The concentration of MTBE in two samples of surface water were 11ppb and 6 ppb . The reason may be due to MTBE spills from repair shops or it is because of used motor oil which spills to the surface water.



J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2004, No.22



Determination of Mathematical Model for Distribution of

Dissolved Oxygen in Activated Sludge System



Sayyed Ahmad Mirbagheri  

Graduate College of the Environment, Science and Research Campus, Islamic Azad University,  Tehran, Iran

Siamak Boodaghpoor

Ali Valaei

College of civil Engineering, Khadje Nassir Toosi University of Technology (K.N.T.Un.) , Tehran-IRAN



Keywords: Activated sludge, mass transfer, dissolved oxygen dynamic, mathematical modeling, simulation



The objective aim of this research was to predict dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a full scale activated sludge reactor. So tested a function for oxygen transfer.

The activated sludge model No.1 was used to describe the biochemical processes.The function of dissolved Oxygen was used by first- order differential equations. This model was simulated by MATLAB Software. The simulated model was tested for a laboratory pilot and shahrak Ghods treatment plant. The obtained results confirmed the data obtained from the model and the experimental one.


J.Env.Sci. Tech., Autumn 2004, No.22



Investigation of Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Inflow to the Proposed Urban Lake at the West of Great Tehran



Jafar Noori

Department of Environmental Health Engineering , School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , P.O.B. 14155-6446. Tehran , Iran

Hamid Rahimipour

Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Center, Tehran , Iran

Roya Nezakati

College of  Environment, Research and Science Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran,Iran


Keywords: Man-Made lake, Supply water, water resources, water quality, environmental factors



According to the natural and man-made environment of Tehran and based on government approval, the largest artificial lake located in far northwest of great Tehran and into the new made District-22 of Tehran Municipality is being designed. This region with and area of about 10000 hectares has been planned as a last connatural limitation of Tehran . Overflow of the Kan and the Vardavrd Rivers such as the one in 1969 in the Kan-Sologhan region and some other purposes like providing a recreational place to attract tourists and making the weather fresh and humid specially in dry seasons turn out to be the reasons for proposing the construction of an artificial lake. The lake is planned with an area of about 225 hectares and 11 million cubic meters volume. The Kan and the Vardavard Rivers, the middle part watershed basins runoff, groundwater, municipal runoff and the waste water of Ekbatan treatment plant are the most important water resources in the area. Annual flow of these resources together is about 120 million cubic meters and there is the possibility of taking 40 million cubic meters of this flow to provide the lake water. To indentify the water quality of resources, samples were taken, analyzed and statistics of hydrometric stations in the region have been assessed. Comparison between these results and standards proved that the Kan and the Vardavard Rivers, groundwater’s and the middle part watershed basins runoff have the highest quality. In Ekbatan treatment plant wastewater and municipal runoff total coliformis 1.1×104 MPN/100ml and 2.2×1029 MPN/100ml respectively which is higher than standards and inappropriate to provide the lake water.