The genus Rosa: An aristocrat from the plant family with class, color and fragrance

 

S. K. Basu1; P. Zandi2*, W. Cetzal-Ix 3 and R. Sengupta4

1UFL, Lethbridge, AB, Canada; 2IA University; Takestan, Iran; 3CICY, Mérida, Yucatán, México; 4WB State University, WB, India *email: z_rice_b@yahoo.com          



The Rosales includes 9 families and about 6300 species; the monophyly of this order is supported by molecular phylogenetic analyzes and characterized morphologically by a reduction or lack of endosperm and the presence (Rosaceae, Rhamnaceae, and some Ulmaceae) or absence (Cannabaceae, Urticaceae, and Moraceae) of a hypanthium. However, phylogenetic relationships within order are still not well resolved, but the principal families recognized are Rosaceae, Rhamnaceae, Ulmaceae, Cannabaceae, Urticaceae, and Moraceae. The family Rosaceae includes 90 genera and ca. 3000 species agrouped into three subfamilies: Rosoideae (28 genera/1200-1900 species), Dryadoideae (4/31), and Spiraeoideae (57/1350). This Family is cosmopolitan and most abundant in the Northern hemisphere with showy species such as apples, pears, peaches, plums, cherries, almonds, apricots, firethorns, meadowsweets, hawthorns, etc. The genus Rosa L. (Roses) are perennial, dicotyledonous plants belonging to the sub-family Rosoideae. In Rosa 435 taxa are recognized, 308 species, 13 subspecies, 28 varieties, 17 forms, and 71 natural hybrids (Fig 1).

 

 

Scientific classification:
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Genus: Rosa L.

 

 

Plant habit varies between dwarf bushes to climbers and vines to semi woody shrubs with stems characterized by sharp woody thorns or prickles. The prickles are green when immature but become, brown to black, hard woody on maturity, and turns white on dead branches or stems. Leaves pinnately compound, leaf margins serrated, leaflets ovoid, phyllotaxy opposite. Both accessory whorls present and mostly pentamerous, calyx alternate with petals, 5 bracteoles opposite petals, stamens and styles numerous, Fruits mostly red colored, aggregate (berry-like structures) commonly referred to as a rose hips. Mostly noted on wild species are not found in the domesticated species. Rose hips are rich in different pigments, carbohydrates and vitamins, citric acid, pectin, and flavonoids. Large flowers, bright coloration and fragrance makes this species a desirable ornamental plant actively used in the decoration of gardens, parks, lawns, boulevards, slopes and basins and as bordering hedges. The species is known for draught resistance and winter hardiness and prefers neutral, loamy and partly leached soil profile, less irrigation and bright sunny days

Figure 1Fig 1. Ornamental plants of Rosa L. [Photo credit: W. Cetzal-Ix]

 

 

 

 

Fig 2

 

Fig 2.  Different global cultivars of Rosa L. (Rosaceae).  [Photo credits: R Sengupta & S. K. Basu]

Roses are native to Asia, with some species reported to be native from the continents of Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Roses cultivated across the planet for commercial purposes are either local and native species or cultivars and hybrids. Most species of roses undergoes hybridization quite easily and hence has been successful in generating wide varieties of clones, hybrids, mutants and genotypes producing a beautiful spectrum of different colored petals and wide ranges of fragrances. Roses are known to be cultivated in ancient China and then spread to the Indian subcontinent and to the empire of Persia most possibly for its fragrance and color; and then slowly to the Middle East and finally into the continent of Europe most possibly through the Arab traders. Historic accounts refer to the fact that roses became extremely popular among the ancient Romans and also among Roman aristocratic families and the royal court due to its beauty, fragrance and several pharmaceutical properties. Rose is the national flower of the United States of America, the United Kingdom and the Maldives. Different cultivars of Rosa sp  are presented in Fig 2.

 

Rosa is one of major economically important genera of ornamental horticulture; also of nutritionally important for the edible temperate fruits, as well as for its medicinal or nutraceuticals uses. Several economically important species of the Rosa are summarized in Table 1.

 

The economical importance of Rose oil

 

Rose oils constitute different ingredients like 2-phenylethanol, citronellol, ingredient geraniol, nerol, stearopten waxes etc. Rose oil is used as perfume in the production of soap and cosmetics and as flavor in liquors and tea. Being mildly antimicrobial and rich in fragrance, it is used in lotions, soaps and creams. It is also used in the traditional treatment of exhaustion and fatigue, anemia, asthma, liver dysfunctions and some gastrointestinal problems and due to positive impact on the nervous system activity; it is also used as a relaxing, toning and cooling agent.

 

 

Table 1. Different species of rose and their color, habit, distribution, constituents and uses (based on USDA 2014).

Some distribution areas

Uses

Duration

Growth habit

Flower color & E. oil content

Common name

Scientific name

Plant Family

Yemen, Ethiopia, Somalia

medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

White; γ-muurolene , caryophyllene oxide

Rosa abyssinica R. Br. ex Lindl.

Rosaceae

North Asia, Europe, and North America

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Pink (rarely white); ‒

Prickly wild rose, Bristly rose

Rosa acicularis Lindl.

Central and Southern Europe, Asia Minor and the Caucasus

Medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

White; Sesquiterpenes

 

Fieldbriar

Rosa agrestis Savi

USA ,eastern Asia

Medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Sub shrub

White;‒

White rose of York

Rosa ×alba L. (pro sp.)

Kazakhstan, Mongolia

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

White; ‒

Albert Rose

Rosa albertii Regel 

USA

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

white to pink colored flowers;‒

Prairie wild rose

Rosa arkansana Porter

Europe, Turkey

Ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

White; ‒

Field rose

Rosa arvensis Huds.

Turkey, Iran, Kyrgyszstan, Kazakhstan, Afganistan, W-Pakistan and Central Asia

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Milky white; ‒

Begger rose

Rosa beggeriana Schrenk

North-western China

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Pink; ‒

Floribunda rose

Rosa bella Rehder & E.H. Wilson 

N-America

Food, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Light to dark rose pink; ‒

Labrador rose

Rosa blanda Aiton

Asia

Food, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

White; ‒

Macartney rose

Rosa bracteata J.C. Wendl.

USA

Ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Pink; ‒

Pygmy rose

Rosa bridgesii Crép.

Central and west Asia

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

White; eugenol , citronellol , geraniol ,terpinen-4-ol

Himalayan Musk rose

Rosa brunonii Lindl.

Kazakhstan, USA

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

pale pink, deep pink to white; 2-phenethyl alcohol ,eugenol.

Dog rose

Rosa canina L.

USA

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub, sub shrub

Pale to mid pink; ‒

Carolina rose, pasture rose

Rosa carolina L.

USA

Ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Deep pink; ‒

Rosa caudata Baker

French

Medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Pink, more rarely white or dark red; phenethyl alcohol, geranyl acetate, geraniol, linalool, citronellol

 

Provence rose

Rosa centifolia L.

China

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

 

Pale pink to scarlet/crimson;   Quercetin 3-O-(2″,6″-digalloyl)-β-D-glucoside 

China rose

Rosa chinensis Jacq

 

 

Table 1. continued.

Some distribution areas

Use

Duration

Growth habit

Flower color& E. oil content

Common name

Scientific name

Plant Family

Iran, Syria

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Sub shrub

Pink;  Nonadecane , heneicosane , docosane , citronellol, 9-nonadecene

Damask rose

Rosa ×damascena Mill. (pro sp.)

Rosaceae

Asia

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Rosy pink; ‒

Father David's rose

Rosa davidii Crép. 

East Serbia, Mongolia , China , Korea, Japan

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Pink; eugenol , benzyl alcohol , β-ionone , dihydro-β-ionol , linalol , benzaldehyde

Shi Mei, Daurian rose

Rosa davurica Pall.

SW Asia, Europe

Ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Dark to light pink

Glaucous Dog-rose

Rosa dumalis Bechst.

Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan , Kashmir, India

Ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Deep yellow;‒

Rosa ecae Aitch.

Central Asia , northwest China

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

White;‒

Fedchenkovskiy rose

Rosa fedtschenkoana Regel

USA

Ornamental

Perennial

Subshrub

Clear pink;‒

Redleaf rose

Rosa ferruiginea Vill.

Asia (Iran)

Medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Deep yellow; n-nonadecane , heptadecene, n-dodecanoic acid

Persian yellow rose

Rosa foetida Herrm.

SE-USA

Ornamental

Perennial

Subshrub

White to rose pink;‒

White prairie rose

Rosa foliolosa Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray

China

Ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Pale to bright pink;‒

Rosa forrestiana Boulenger

 

Ukraine, Caucasus, Iraq, Europe

Ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Rose pink, crimson;‒

Gallic rose

Rosa gallica L.

NW-America

Ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Pink;‒

Bald-hip rose, wood rose

 Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt.

USA

Ornamental

Perennial

Subshrub

Sulphur-yellow, deep yellow;‒

Harison's yellow rose, yellow rose of Texas

Rosa ×harisonii Rivers

 

Asia

Medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Subshrub

Light pink to deep pink;‒

Cyme rose

 Rosa indica L.

Europe, Russian, Turkey

Ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Pale to rosy pink;‒

Rosa jundzillii Besser

Russia

Ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Pink with paler centers;‒

Kamchatka rose

Rosa ×kamtchatica Vent.

Iran ,Afghanistan, Mongolia, Kazakhstan

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Bright yellow;‒

Kokand rose

Rosa kokanica Regel ex Juz.

Laos, Vietnam, China

Ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

White, creamy white;‒

Cherokee rose

 Rosa laevigata Michx.

Russia

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

white to pale pink; ‒

Lax rose

Rosa laxa Retz.

 

 

 

Table 1. continued.

Some distribution areas

Use

Duration

Growth habit

Flower color & E. oil content

Common name

Scientific name

Plant Family

Europe, Siberia(Russia)

Medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Purplish pink,

mid pink; ‒

May rose

 Rosa majalis J. Herrm.

Rosaceae

USA, Asia

Ornamental, honey plant

Perennial

Shrub

Golden-yellow;‒

Samarkand rose

Rosa maracandica Bunge

W,S,C-Europe, Russia, Caucasus, Armenia, Lebanon, Turkey and North West Africa

Food, medicinal, ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Pink;‒

Small flower sweetbriar

Rosa micrantha Borrer ex Sm.

USA, Mexico

Ornamental

Perennial

Subshrub

Bright pink; ‒

Baja rose

Rosa minutifolia Engelm.

USA,UK, Europe

Ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Pink to purplish;‒

Soft downy rose

Rosa mollis Sm.

S-Europe, N-America, SW-Asia, Mediterranean

Ornamental

Perennial

Subshrub, vine

White, cream; citronellol, geraniol, nerol

Musk rose

 

Rosa moschata J. Herrm.

W-China

Ornamental

Perennial

Shrub

Pink to blood-red; ‒

Mandarin rose

Rosa moyesii Hemsl. & E.H. Wilson

Based on USDA, 2014

 

References                                 

 

Aimin XLQ (1999) Progresses on storage and fresh-keeping of rose cut flowers. Journal of Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Technology 2: 59-64.

Baille M, Baille A, Delmon D (1994) Microclimate and transpiration of greenhouse rose crops. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 71(1): 83-97.

Berkowsky P, Bruce J (2000) Importance of rose oil in asthma remedy. Academic Press, New York.

Bo H, Xianghuan L, Xiaofang Z (2002) Technology and Its Mechanism of Color Keeping in Red Rose Petals during the Processing of Dry Pressed Flowers. Acta Horticulturae Sinica 29(6): 561-565.

Boutekedjiret CF, Bentahar R, Belabbes L, Bessiere JM (2003) Extraction of rosemary essential oil by steam distillation and Hydro distillation. Flavour Fragrance Journal, 18(6): 481-484.

Bredmose N (1993) Effects of year-round supplementary lighting on shoot development, flowering and quality of two glasshouse rose cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 54(1): 69-85.

Celik F, Kazankaya A, Ercisli S (2009) Fruit characteristics of some selected promising rose hip (Rosa spp.) genotypes from Van region of Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(3): 236-240.

Chamani E, Irving DE, Joyce DC, Arshad M (2006) Studies with thidiazuron on the vase life of cut rose flowers. The society for advancement of Horticulture, 8(1): 42-44.

Cullen J, Knees SJ, Cubey HS (2011)The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe, Both Out-of-Doors and Under Glass, 2ND edn., Cambridge University Press, New York, USA

Dogan A, Kazankaya A (2006) Fruit properties of rose Hip species grown in lake van basin (eastern Anatolia region). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 5(1): 120-122.

Elings A, den Belder E, Yilma Y, Dawd M, Lemessa F (2009) Integrated pest management in Ethiopian rose horticulture. In I All Africa Horticultural Congress 911 (pp. 511-518).

Ercişli S, Eşitken A (2004) Fruit characteristics of native rose hip (Rosa spp.) selections from the Erzurum province of Turkey. New Zealand journal of crop and horticultural science, 32(1): 51-53.

Góra J, Lis A, Kalemba D (1995) Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Rosa centifolia L. Petals. Journal of Essential Oil Research – J Essen Oil 7(1):89-90.

Hummer KE, Janick J (2009) 1. Rosaceae: Taxonomy, Economic Importance, Genomics. In: KM Folta, Gardiner SE (Eds.), Genetics and Genomics of Rosaceae, Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models 6. Springer Science + Business Media.

Honarvar M, Javidnia K, Khosh-Khui M (2011) Essential oil composition of fresh and dried flowers of Rosa moschata from Iran. Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 47(5):826.

Horst RK, Cloyd RA (2007) Compendium of rose diseases and pests (pp. 28-30). St. Paul: APS press.

Hosni K, Kerkenni A, Medfei W, Ben Brahim N, Sebei H (2010) Volatile Oil Constituents of Rosa canina L.: Quality As Affected by the Distillation Method. Organic Chemistry International

Hui-chao LIU (2007) Advance in Research of Rose Tissue Culture. Journal of Henan Institute of Science and Technology (Natural Sciences Edition), 3: 015.

 

Jud WS, Campbell CS, Kellog EA, Stevens PF, Donoghue MJ (2008) Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, Third Edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Li HY, Hu GF, Hu BZ (2004) A study on tissue culture and rapid propagation of rose Journal of Northeast Agricultural University, 1: 017.

Lieth JH, Pasian CC (1991) A simulation model for the growth and development of flowering rose shoots. Scientia Horticulturae, 46(1): 109-128.

Lin P, Cai J, Li W, Sang QD (2003) Constituents of the essential oil of Hemerocallis flavaday lily. Flavour Fragrance Journal, 18(6): 539-541.

Ma XH, Wang YH, Wei Q, Zhang GJ (2004) Study on processing technology of rose essential oil. Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products, 24: 80-84.

Matsumoto S, Fukui H (1996) Identification of rose cultivars and clonal plants by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Scientia Horticulturae, 67(1): 49-54.

Millan T, Osuna F., Cobos S, Torres AM, Cubero JI (1996) Using RAPDs to study phylogenetic relationships in Rosa. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 92(2): 273-277.

Moein M, Karami F, Tavallali H, Ghasemi Y(2010)Composition of the Essential Oil of Rosa damascena Mill. from South of Iran. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Winter, 01: 6. 

Naves M (1983) Essential oils of the plant family Rosaceae, Earnest Guenther. Journal Essential Oil, 19:268-281.

Nenov N, Zvetkov R, Ognyanov I (1995) Bulgarian rose oil: development, recent state, and prognosis: plenary lectures. Analytical composition trade industry, Agriculture-Botany, 2: 345-350.

Nigam MC, Gupta GN, Dhingra DR (1959)Oils of the Rosa species. Indian Perfume, 3: 76-83.

Qin MXWYW, Guangjun Z (2006) Dynamic Changes of Essential Oil from Oil-Bearing Rose. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 3: 015.

Richen C, Xiting Z, Xiaohui L, Junping G (2003) Difference of endopeptidase activity in petals between two cut rose cultivars with different tolerance to water deficit stress during flower opening and senescence. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 30(2): 232-235.

Rose J (1999) Essential oils and Hydrosols. Frog Ltd. California USA.

Ru XQL (2004) Physiological Effects of Preservatives on Preservation of Cut Rose hybrid Flower. Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops, 1: 009.

Shenggen H, Baoyin CR, Uijing L, Yuhui Y (1997) Fresh-keeping effect of Epibrassinolide on rose cut flowers . Journal of Tropical and Subtropical 3: 010.

Sheppard-Hanger S (1995) The aromatherapy Practitioner Reference Manual. Volume (1). Institute of Aromatherapy. Tampa. Florida, USA

Shin HK, Lieth JH, Kim SH (2000) Effects of temperature on leaf area and flower size in rose. In III International Symposium on Rose Research and Cultivation 547 (pp. 185-191).

Shuangyi B, Qinglin L (2001). Preliminary Study on the Senescence Symptom and Vase Life of Different Cultivars of Cut Rose. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 28(4): 364-366.

Sołtys-Lelek A, Barabasz-Krasny B, Turis P, Turisová I (201$) Morphological differentiation of Rosa agrestis Savi in the buffer zone of the Low Tatras National Park (Slovakia) Modern Phytomorphology 5:53-61.

The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Published on the Internet; http://www.theplantlist.org/ (accessed 27 July).

Tze-ming L (1964) Roses of China and roses of Europe. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 4: 012.

Ueyama Y, Hashimoto S, Nii H, Furukawa K (1990) The volatile constituents of Shi Mei (Rosa davurica Pall.) flower concrete from China. Flavour Fragr. J., 5:115-120.

USDA (2014) Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Family Solanaceae. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Available at: https://plants.usda.gov/java/ClassificationServlet?source=profile&symbol=Solanaceae&display=63 [Accessed on 28th June, 2014]

Xing W, Bao M, Qin H, Ning G (2010) Micropropagation of Rosa rugosa through axillary shoot proliferation. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica, 52(2): 69-75.

Yong G, Shaojin W (1990) Studies on the physiological changes and senescence of cut rose during vase-holding life . Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 1: 014.

Zhao XL, Su XH, Han Y, Zhao LJ (2005) Selection and evaluation of the resistant resources to rose crown gall disease. Forest research-Chinese Academy of Forestry, 18(6): 676.

Zhengping L (1988) Study on some factors affecting propagation and transplantation of rose in vitro. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 2, 011.

Ziarati P, Asgarpanah J, Safialdinardebilya M (2014) The Volatile Oil Composition of Rosa foetida Herrm. Flowers Growing Wild in Kurdistan province (Iran). Journal of essential oil-bearing plants, 17(1): 169-172.